GLOSSARY & DICTIONARY OF GOLF

Thai-Ger Line Golf Glossary - list of terms and definitions about Golf 

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19th hole
The clubhouse bar

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Abnormal Ground Conditions
Abnormal ground conditions are for example the ground under repair, holes made by animals, frost or dew, holes dug by greenkeepers or casual water. In a game with those circumstances a player is allowed to relief. But he is not allowed to abuse the rule for his personal advantage, so only if there is a ground condition that counts.

Above the hole
If a ball is positioned that the next putt will be downhill, it is called above the hole. Those putts are not estimated, because they are riskier and harder to judge.

Acceptable Score
To calculate or adjust a players handicap, the Acceptable Score is a score made over an 18 hole round.

Ace
Ace is another expression for a hole-in-one, it describes a shot that goes straight from the tee shot into the hole. That is a score of 1 on that hole. As par-3 holes are shorter, stroking an ace there is more common, as at par-4 or par-5 holes.

Aces and Deuces
One betting game in golf is called Aces and Deuces or Acey Ducey. In there four golfers play against against each other. The lowest score, so the ace, on each hole gains an agreed upon amount from all the other three players. Whereas the high score, so the deuce, has to give an agreed upon amount to all the other golfers. Normally the agreed upon amount for the ace is twice the agreed upon amount for the deuce, but the rules are not strict in there, so the group can decide by themselves about their agreed upon amount. Sometimes the game is also spelled as Acie Ducie.

Action
In golf action is another phrase for the backspin on the golfball. A action is produced by contact with the clubface. It is a rotation movement, that causes that the golfball stops quickly or even spins backwards after the impact with the turf.

Active Season
Within the active season a player can adjust his handicap with the score he shot in an tournament.

Address
Address is a special taking stance in golf. A golfer addresses his golfball when he bents over and faces the golfball before he tees off. Thereby he lines his club up by placing the head of the club behind the ball for the shot.

Adjusted Gross Score
The Adjusted Gross score is also abbreviated with AGS. Its base are the scores the players in a competition shot. Afterwards it is used to recalculate the handicaps.

Advice
An advice is normally not allowed on the golf course, but an exception are partners and caddies. If anyone else gives advice how to play the golfball, he can be punished.

Aeration
Aeration is the process to put oxygen into the turf, so to the roots. Usually it is done once or twice a year at a golf course. To loosen the turf, a special machinery makes holes in a certain pattern into the ground. Normally it needs a few weeks for the holes to fill in and grow over. For that reason some golf courses reduce the fee while the ground recovers. Sometimes the procedure is also called Aerification.

Aerosol
If a golfer is not able to shot the ball in a consistent line and sprays the ball, this is called aerosol.

Aggregate
An aggregate in golf is a score that results out of more than one round of play or if two or more players play together as partners.

Aim
If a player targets his goal and has the intention to shot his ball there, in golfvocabulary one says that this is his aim.

Aiming
Aiming in golf is the process of facing the goal and aligning oneself to it.

Aircraft Carrier
With aircraft carrier golfers associate a teeing ground which includes all the tees for a hole.

Air Mail
The air mail is an expression for that a golfer totally overshoot the green or has hit the ball far more than he should have.

Air Presses
Air Presses are special bets in golf. The unique feature is, that the bet is automatically accepted, if someone called it. If a golfer calls air press it means, that the one who called the bet thereby says he'll be better than his opponent.

Air Shot
If a player has addressed his ball, swings and misses the the ball during the swing, it is called air shot. The air shot is nevertheless counted as a regular one.

Albatross
If a golfer played three shots under par, so under the prescribed stroke-number, it is either called albatross or double eagle.

Alfred S. Bourne Trophy
The winner of the Senior PGA Championship gains a sterling silver trophy which is called Alfred S. Bourne Trophy. Alfred S. Bourne was an original member at the popular Augusta National Golf Club who once donated $ 1,500 for the creation of a Tiffany's trophy. The result is a quite impressive, tall and heavy silver trophey which is in action since 1937. As a memory the names of all the winners of the Senior PGA Championship are engraved on the trophy. But a winner doesn't get the original trophy to keep, the winners are given a replica after they won.

Alignment
In golf the Alignment is the way a golfer positions himself facing his target – so the hole or the target line. His body, so the feet, hips and shoulders should be parallel to the line and it is basically very important for the perfect swing.

All square
All square is the expression that is used in matchplay when two parties have shot the same score. All square is often abbreviated with AS on the scoreboard.

Alternate Fairway
A second fairway which offers the golfer another option, is called alternate fairway. So in fact at holes with an alternate fairway the player can decide which one he likes better for his game. The two fairways always differ themselves in some details.

Alternate Green
A second putting green for one hole, which offers the golfer another option, is called alternate green. So in fact at holes with an alternate green the player can decide which one he likes better for his game. The two greens always differ themselves in some details. The opportunity of an alternate green is often used for 9-hole courses, because golfers can play a 18-hole round with only 9-holes by using the two different possibilities.

Alternate Shot
The alternate shot is a special version of playing golf. In there two players are in a team and play alternately with the same ball. The golfers in the team decide among themselves who tees off first and afterwards they hit alternately. The “alternate shot” can on the one hand be played as stroke play, at the other hand as match play. The version of the alternate shot is more commonly known as foursome.

Alternate Tees
Often used at 9-hole courses, the alternate tees are two different tee boxes for one hole. Hereby the golfer has the possibility to play from another position at the same hole when he plays his second nine holes. The separate sets provide completely different conditions so the golfer has an alternation even if it is the same hole.

Am-Am
Am-Am is also known as Amateur-Amateur and it means that in case of an tournament where an amateur signs up he'll play in a team with another amateur player.

Amateur
Amateurs or amateur golfers in golf play for pleasure, so they don't earn their keep as golfplayer. They are not even allowed to accept money for any activity, so nor for tournament winnings, neither for teaching golf sports. As a result it is the direct opposite to professional players who do so.

Amateur status
Amateur golf players do have the so-called amateur status and wont loose it as far as they don't become professionals. Amateur status golfers never played or teached golf in exchange for money.

Ambose
A special version of the golfplay is called ambose, ambose competition or ambose tournament. In this variation two teams play against each other. As the rules define, there are at maximum four players permitted in each team. At first step all players of a team tee off, then the team designates the best stroke and the whole team plays with this ball until the ball is holed. The characteristic feature of the ambose is that the handicaps of the team members get combined. The tournament can define a special version of the handicap combination, but normally it is set, that for two persons the handicap is added together and divided by four. In case there are 3 persons in a team, the handicaps are also added together, but divided by 6. If four golfers play together in a team their handicaps are also added and the sum is divided by 8. The result is then the team-handicap for the ambose.

American Ball
Until 1990 there were two different minimum-sizes of golf balls, one was given by the R&A, one by the USGA. The USGA had a minimum-size, which was a little bit larger than the one of R&A. The USGA became popular as American Ball, whereas the R&A golfball became known as the British ball. In 1990 the ball sizes became standardized.

American Foursomes
American Foursomes is a particular variation of playing golf. In there, two teams with two golf players in each play against each other. Then, firstly both golfers of one team tee off and has to shot the second shot with the opposite golf ball, thus with the ball of their team partner. After the second shot, they are permitted to select the golf ball with the best location and play with this ball in alternate shot fashion until its holed. The procedure repeats at every individual hole until the round is finished. Characteristically is, that the American Foursomes can either be played in stroke play or in match play format. As the golfer Dick Chapman probably invented the game at the Pinehurst Resort the variation is also known as Chapman System or Pinehurst.

Amen Corner
As Arnold Palmer won the US Masters Tournament in one corner of the golf course at the Augusta National Golf Club, this corner nowadays is called Amen Corner. In there, there are 3 holes, the holes 11, 12 and 13. Normally the result of US Masters Tournament gets decided in this corner.

Angle of approach/Angle of attack
The Angle of attack is the term that describes the angle, at which the club head strokes the ball. This angle has also impact in the trajectory which the ball will travel.

Appearance Fee
Pro-Golfplayers receive the so-called appearance fees or alternatively appearance money. That is money the player gains for only playing at the tournament. Even if he misses the finish in the tournament, he earns the appearance fee in any case.

Appearances
One side bet in golf is called Appearances. In there the person who tees off first on a hole has won the bet. It is called having the honor to be allowed to tee off first. At the first teeing ground the order of playing is randomly determined, afterwards the golfer who has had the lowest score at the previous hole is allowed to tee off first on the next hole. So each golfer who has the honors gains one point. The bet is also called honors.

Approach shot
An Approach or Approach Shot is a shot, with which the player intends to play the golfball towards the green.

Approach Course
In golf the Approach Course is a special golf course for at most par-3 distances or shorter, but not any holes with longer distances. Usually the golf player first pitches and afterwards putts the golf ball, because the distances are quite short. Following to that style of hitting the golf ball, another expression for those golf courses is pitch-and-putt course.

Approach Wedge
The club, with which the player shots the Approach is called Approach Wedge. Other names are gap wedge, a-wedge or attack wedge.

Apron
Apron is the area around the putting green. It isolates the green from the fairway or the rough and has a little bit longer turf than the actual green. Golfers also use the expressions fringe, collar or frog hair for this area.

Arizona Shuffle
In golf the Arizona Shuffle is a special version of playing golf. Firstly the game can be played in a team with three or four persons as a Stroke play, mainly in the Stableford system, and it depends where it is played, but in variation in the Arizona Shuffle a varying number of team members' scores is used on each hole. The game can be played in different ways, for example that on par 3-holes the team score is out of one low ball, on par-4 holes there are two low balls combined for the team score, whereas in par-5 holes the three low balls are for the team scores. As the “Arizona Shuffle” can be individually modified, there exist some other variations of playing it.

Army Golf
In golf the expression army golf is telling something about the playing style of an golfer. If a player hits the ball all over the golf course in many different directions it is called army golf.

Arnies
A special side bet in golf is named after Arnold Palmer, so it is called Arnies. In there the golfplayer wins the hole, when he makes par without having been on the fairway before. The bet is about getting oneself out of trouble, because Arnold Palmer was a chief in this category it is named after him. If golfers want to play Arnies in a round, the amount of the bet should be set beforehand.

Arnold Palmer Award
In golf there are three different trophies or awards named after Arnold Palmer. One of it is the award for the PGA Tour and one on the Champions Tour. Both of them go to the leading money winners. The third award is presented in collegiate golf at the National Coaches Association of America men's golf championships. In there the medalists of all levels win the award.

Artisan
An Artisan is a special class of membership. The members have limited rights but therefore low costs. In previous times the British golf clubs often had artisan membership out of the working classes. They were for example not allowed to enter the clubhouse or vote the club management, they also needed to play golf in separate competitions. Some Artisan memberships even survived until now.

Attack Wedge
The club, with which the player shots the Approach is called Attack Wedge. Other names are gap wedge, a-wedge or approach wedge.

Attend (the flag-stick)
A golfer attends the flag-stick, when he removes and holds it for another player, so that the other one can hole the ball.

Augusta National Golf Club
The Augusta National Golf Club is one of the most famous golf clubs all over the world. At this golf course the well-known Major The Masters Tournament takes place. The golf club has extremely hard member restrictions. People speculate that the rangefee costs about 25.000 to 50.000 Dollar per year. The club doesn't accept any kind of application, it recruits members by sending them an invoice without any comment. Since 2012 women are also allowed to play at the golf course.

Authorised
An Authorised golfer is one, that is part of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club St. Andrews, that supervises golf in Europe, Asia and the Commonwealth.

Auto Win
A special golf game variation in golf is called Auto Win. It can be played in a group of golfers, with two, three or four members. Auto Win can either be played as a betting game or for pleasure. Characteristically for this golf version is, that if a player chips-in from off the green, holes-out from a sand bunker or sticks an approach shot inside the pin from 150 yards out or more (or on a par-3 hole) he automatically won the hole. Because of this automatic-effect the game is called Auto Win. At the end of a round the golfer who won the most holes, is the winner of the match.

Austin
If a ball lands off the green but on an imaginary line which faces the flag, it is an Austin. Thereby it does not make any difference how far the ball is away from the hole as long as it still lands on that line.

Away
The player whose ball is the furthest away from the hole is away. This golfer is normally also allowed to play first.

A-Wedge
The club, with which the player shots the Approach is called A-Wedge. Other names are gap wedge, approach wedge or attack wedge.

B

Back Door
The back side of a hole is the one, that is the farthermost of the player's position. If the player putts the ball and it holes by going around the lip of the cup and as a result drops from the back side, this manner is called back door.

Back in the Stance
Back in Stance is a special version of the golf-adress. At this version, the ball lies closer to the rear foot, so consequently further away from the hole. This is very useful for shorter shots, but the other way round is advantageous for long strokes.

Back Nine
In an 18-hole course the last nine holes a golfer plays are called back nine, back side or last nine. Most of the time the round starts at hole one, so the back nine are the holes 10-18, but sometimes the round starts somewhere else, then the back nine are the holes from 1-9. That is the opposite to the first nine holes, so usually from 1-9, those are called front nine.

Back Side
In an 18-hole course the holes 10-18 are called back side, back nine, in or last nine. That is the opposite to the first nine holes, so from 1-9, those are called front nine.

Backspin
A backspin is produced by contact with the clubface. It is a rotation movement, that causes that the golf ball stops quickly or even spins backwards after the impact with the turf. The backspin is also called bite or action.

Backswing
The backswing is part of the golf-swing. It is the movement rearward, it starts when the golfer takes the club away from the ball and ends when the club-head is behind the golfer's head.

Back Tees
On the teeing ground of a golf course, there are often various sets of tees provided. Mostly there are three sets, which are either differenced by colors or by names forward, middle, back. The back tees are the most rearward set of tees, whereas the forward tees are in the forefront. Good golfers usually play the golf course from the back tees on each teeing ground, because with those they can play the maximum yardage.

Backweight
On purpose of changing the whole weight, any technical qualities of the club head or the swingweight, a so called backweight is added to do so. The backweight got his name because it distributes the weight to the rear of the clubhead. The backweight is used to influence the center of gravity or heightens the moment of interia.

Baffy/Baffie
A baffie or baffy is a special golf club with a wooden shaft. Before the 20th century it had much use, but it is meanwhile antiquated and not often appropriated any more. Its characteristics are comparable with a 4-wood club of these days.

Bag
The Bag is also called Golfbag. In there golfers can transport their whole equipment over the golf course, like for example his golf clubs, the ball mark repair tool, golf balls or even drinks.

Bag raid
Another version of playing golf is the bag raid. In there two golfers play a matchplay game. The special feature in this version is, that the agreed upon amount for each hole is to remove a golf club of the opponent and that the loser of a hole is allowed to remove the club from the winner's bag. Before teeing off, the two sides can agree on removing every club instead of the putter. This game variation can synonymously be called Pick Up Sticks.

Bag-Tag
The Bag Tag is kind of a confirmation for everybody to see, in what team the player is a full member. It is usually fixed at the bag and shows especially the golf club and the name of the golfer.

Bail Out
The bail-out shot in golf is, if the player has the intention of hitting the ball to a safer area. With that he doesn't want to take the riskier way because he's not sure that he will properly play it without problems.

Bail-out-area
A landing area on the golf course, that offers a save alternative to players who don't want to try the risky way of playing the hole, is called bail-out-area.

Balance
The golfer should always have a good balance, especially in the address and the swing, because in any case the balance affects his shot enormously.

Balance Point
The balance point is the main physical emphasis of the golf club. In the past, it was exactly centered, but nowadays it is proofed, that the shot is more precisely, the closer it is placed at the club head. For that reason, depending on the manufacturer, there are meanwhile different emphases, so that it is the players choice which one he likes the best.

Balata
Balata designates a special kind of golf balls. The main difference is a rubber-like material for the cover of the balls. Balata is a very soft, natural material. Because of the softness the golf balls allow higher spin rates, a higher feeling for the ball and therefore more control. That's the reason why especially golf pro's and golfers with a low handicap often used the balata balls. On the other hand the golf balls are more or less unsuitable for beginners or amateur golfers, because the surface can easily break. Meanwhile most of the balata balls disappeared, because the manufacturers developed better alternatives out of synthetical material.

Ball
Golf balls are accurately defined balls beginning from special material or a dimple cover up to exactly defined dimensions. Usually they are white colored. A golf ball should never be heavier than 45.93 gramme and shouldn't be smaller than 42,67 mm. Furthermore the ball compression is precisely set. That means it lays inbetween a spectrum of soft (80-90) until 110 which is very hard. A golf player can chose the compression which is the best for his style of playing golf. Another characteristic feature of golf balls is that if they are marked with one or more X. That means the balls may be incorrectly produced or it's just an overproduction. For that reason it is not allowed to play balls with an X at golf tournaments. A golf ball can also have different states. For example is the ball a ball in play from teeing off until it is holed.

Ball in play
Ball in Play is an expression for the status of a golf ball. If it is in play, it defines the ball from the first stroke from the teeing ground until it is holed out.

Ball in pocket
The ball mode ball in pocket describes the situation of a golfer who picked up his golf ball and doesn't want to go forward and complete the hole. He puts the ball in his pocket and thereby shows everybody that he won't play this hole any more.

Ball mark
The term ball mark is used for hollows at the putting green indebted by golf balls which landed to sudden from great height. Ballmarks should be repaired with special “ballmark tools” directly after the shot, so that following balls can not be distracted by the hollow. A synonym is pitch mark.

Ball marker
The ball marker is a small and at the same time flat item, which is used for marking the position of the golf ball before lifting it. The marker is placed directly in the rear of the ball, afterwards the golf ball can be lifted. This process is used to clean the ball or to remove it if it lays in the putting line of another golfer. Afterwards the ball can be positioned directly in front of the ball mark, so that it is located the same way as before. Those ball marks are often small coins which are sometimes giveaways of any enterprise.

Ballmark Tool
Ballmark tools are used to repair ball marks or pitch marks at the putting green. It is basically a little two-pronged tool, made out of plastic or metal. As it is part of the etiquette of playing golf to repair its ball marks, every golfer should have a ballmark tool.

Ballooning
If the golfer mis-hit the golf ball and it went to high, but didn't fly far enough, golfers call that effect ballooning. One reason for that can for example be, that the ball was hit too far down, so the backspin is strengthened and the ball again loses distance. The wind can also be an reinforcing factor for ballooning.

Ball Retriever
The ball retriever is a tool to fetch back a golf ball which landed in a water hazard. Otherwise the balls would be lost. The ball retriever consists of a long telescoping metal or plastic with a net on one end to retrieve the ball. Sometimes it is also called golf ball retriever.

Ballstriking
Ballstriking is the term for a strong full swing. A ballstriker is the golfer who performs the swing. Ballstriking implements, that a golfer is not only very gifted at the full swing, but also the commander of the golf ball, so the ball makes whatever he wants him to.

Ball Washer
The ball washer is an instrument for cleaning the golf balls. Most commonly it is located besides tee boxes. There are different designs of the ball washers, but in fact they all have the same main principle. Inside the ball washer there are brushes and water and the golfer can move the ball up and down. Afterwards it is essentially important to dry the ball with a towel, because a wet golf ball would become dirty soon again. The ball washer is also known as ball cleaner or ball cleanser.

Banana Ball
The banana ball is a definition of an extremely slice. Which means a mis-hit of the golf ball, so that it makes a curve but that was not the intention of the golf player. At regard on a right-handed golfer, in a slice the golf ball always goes from the left to the right (a left-handed golfer has exactly the contrary problem). As the banana ball describes a intense slice, it is a severe curve from the left to the right (for right-handed golfer players).

Bandit
A bandit is a golf player who cheats in playing golf. The bandit pretends to have a higher handicap or is a better golfer than he confesses. As a result he has higher possibility to win at big tournaments with net rating. Sometimes the bandit is also called sandbagger or hustler.

Bare Lie
Golfers call it bare lie, when the ball lies completely on hard ground, so that there is no grass under it. Sometimes golfers practice on purpose at hard mats, so at the bare lie.

Barnes Wallis
One less usual achievement during the game is called barnes wallis in the United Kingdom. The term describes a situation, in which the golf ball landed in the water of a hazard, but skips back to the ground, thus directly back into the play. This achievement is also known as bonito.

Barky/Barkie
Barky as term is used, if a golfer has hit a tree but nevertheless completes the hole with par. This process can also be the barkie side bet. In there, the golfers of the flight define the worth of a barky before playing. Occasionally the barky is also known as woodies or seve's.

Barranca
In golf, a barranca is located at the golf course. Its visual appearance is a dry gully or ravine filled with rocks, because normally a barranca is to play as a hazard. How to play it concretely is defined by the local rules of the golf course.

Baseball-Grip
A special kind of gripping the golf club is named the baseball grip. Thereby all ten fingers hold the club without overlapping or interlocking. A disadvantage can be, that there is the possibility that the golfer will perform imprecisly. This grip is also known as full finger grip or ten finger grip.

Battlefield Promotion
The expression battlefield promotion is used in professional golf, when a golfer played the Web.com Tour and directly rises to the PGA Tour. So in fact the battlefield promotion describes, when a golf player wins three times in one season on the Web.com Tour. Afterwards, with that battlefield promotion the golfer can immediately compete at the PGA Tour. Other terms for battlefield promotion are three-win promotion or three victory promotion.

Beach
Actually beach is in golf another name for bunker. Thus a golf course hazard, so obstacle, which is a total sand filled area. There are no regulations about any dimensions. So there exist deeper and lower, greater and smaller bunkers at golf courses. A bunker shot is the stroke which is directly played out of the bunker. Golfers differentiate between pot bunkers, cross bunkers, and church pews bunkers.

The Bear
The Bear is a special variation of playing golf. It is a golf game for a group, ideally there are three or four players, but two are also working. The aim is to have the lowest score on a hole and that is called catching the Bear. The flight agrees on an amount of points or money in advance. Whoever holds the bear also wins the points or money, but at each hole, the Bear doubles each time when another player captures the Bear. After the ninth hole, the bet pays off to the one who holds the Bear at this hole. Afterwards it starts over again for the back nine holes and the winner there is the one who captures the Bear after playing the 18th hole

Beat the Worst
Another special variation of golf is Beat the Worst. This variation is also suitable for a group of three or four golfers. Another name for this game is on the spot, because the objective is, that one golfer on each hole is on the spot and therefore has to beat the worst score of the other golf players in his flight. The flight rotates on being the on the spot player. On each hole every golfer plays and afterwards the scores were compared, whether the on the spot player has beaten the worst other player.

Belly Putter
Basically the Belly Putter is a putter with a long shaft. The name is characteristically for its function: at the end of the grip, the golfer anchored it at his belly. Positive at this method is, that the golf shot is more likely not affected by any kind of nervousness or shaking. But as this is sometimes seen as a kind of cheating, in 2016 the anchoring will already be forbidden in the USA.

Below the Hole
A position, where the next putt of the golfer will be uphill to the hole, is called below the hole. This occurs, if a hole is in a position where the green slopes. In general it is desired to putt the ball below the hole, because it is much easier and better to judge to putt uphill, than downhill.

Ben Hogan Award
There are two ben hogan awards. One of them is a male player of the year award. Namely a special one, because it goes to the best collegiate male golfer in the United States. It is presented by the Golf Coaches Association of America and the Colonial Country Club. And considers college tournaments as well as other amateur tournament results. The other “ben hogan award” is presented to golfers who overcame a serious illness, physical handicap or accident but still continuous playing. Thereby the Golf Writers Association of America as organizer wants to appreciate their power of moving forward.

Ben Hogan Tour
Ben Hogan Tour was the original name of the Web.com Tour. It started with this name, because the Ben Hogan Company was the biggest sponsor in the first three seasons. As afterwards other companies took over the position of being fist title sponsor, the name changed a few times until the meanwhile asserted name Web.com Tour.

Bending
One part of the fitting of golf clubs is the so-called bending. In this process with aid of a special machine the club head gets bended individually however it fits the best for the playing style of the golf player. Changing the slope of the club head also modifies the impact behavior of the golf club.

Bend Point
Bend point is the name of one part of the golf club. More specified it's one point at the shaft of the golf club, at which the golf club bends itself the most. This bending also influences the flight characteristics of the golf ball after the impact. Generally is proved, that in case the bend point is situated nearer to the clubhead, the ball flies higher. Oppositely, if it is further away from the clubhead, the golf ball flies flatter. But normally the bend point has not that much influence, that it can decide about a good or a bad game. After an analysis of the golf swing, a golf player can decide about a specific flex point for his golf clubs. Alternatively the terms flex point or kickpoint can also be used for the bend point.

Bentgrass
Bentgrass is a special kind of turf. Its enormous advantage is, that it is super resistant of cold temperatures and therefore can be used especially in relatively cold regions. Characteristically for bent is that it has special thin blades that grow densely and can be extremely closely mown. That's the reason for its popularity at putting greens. A negative effect is that Bentgrass can not handle high temperatures, so it can't be used at golf courses in hotter areas.

Best at Something
Best at something is a variation of golf. It is a betting game which can be played in combination with any other variation of golf in which every golfer plays with his or her own golf ball. Each player counts his or her strokes and points. Throughout the round points are distributed or subtracted for different things. The golf player with the most points at the end of the round has won the bet. It can be declared that woods needs to be used for getting a point, but that can vary individually. But whats usually obligatory is, that for getting one point, one needs to make a fairway hit or a one putt green, so a green in regulation. Whereas one point is subtracted if a golfer needs three putts more on the green, hits a hazard, lost a ball or gets out of bounds. Those are normally the main guidelines, but a flight can vary those however they want.

Best Ball
One of the most famous variations of golf is Best Ball. In there normally two teams with two golf players in each (but it can also be varied to three or four person teams) play against each other. There is one golf ball for each player with which he or she plays throughout the game of golf. The speciality is, that the best ball of the team counts, thus the lowest score of the team, whereas the other scores simply get deleted. Usually Best Ball is played as stroke play or as matchplay. Additionally it is also known as “four ball” or better ball.

Best Holes
The name of a side betting game which is usually played during the round is best holes. Each golf player who takes part in best holes needs to put an agreed-upon amount in the pot, before the round starts. Then each player has to circle his three favorite holes at the scorecard, where he thinks he'll score best. The scores are considered in relation to par, so not only the total strokes. At the end of a round, the best score wins the bet and therefore the pot. This game variation is also known as Favorite Holes.

Best Nines
The betting game Best Nines basically consists of tree different rounds: the first one is concerning the holes 1 to 9, the second round is from holes 10 to 18, whereas the third round implies all 18 holes. In the end it can be rated in three different ways. On the one hand side a golf player can gain three points, so one for the first, one for the second and one for the third round. In another assessment scheme the golfer can win four points in total. One for the first round, one for the second 9 holes, but two points for the third one. The third variation of rating offers five points in total. Hereby the golfer can win one point for the first nine holes, but two points for each of the other rounds. The Best Nines are sometimes also called Nassau, because the variation of golf was probably invented in the popular Nassau Country Club.

Better Ball
The very popular variation of golf called Better Ball, works usually with two teams with two golf players in each which play against each other. In this variation there are also three or four persons allowed to play in one team. In fact every player plays with his own golf ball throughout the game. The special feature is, that the lowest score of the team counts, and the other scores don't. In general better ball is either played as stroke play or as match play. The variation of golf is also known as best ball or four ball.

Biarritz Green
The biarritz is a putting green in which a swale or gully bisects the middle. It can either be from side-to-side or from front to back, but the big challenge is normally, that the hole is on one side of the swale whereas the ball sits on the other side and then needs to go down and up in the swale to reach the hole. For that the golfer needs to do a long putt. A golf hole which contains a biarritz is often called biarritz hole and originally the name is caused by the Biarritz Golf Club – the golf course where the first biarritz became popular.

Big Bertha
Big Bertha is a driver of the brand Callaway Golf. Unique about that driver is the big club head, for that reason it is called big bertha. At first, the driver was produced out of stainless steel, meanwhile it is out of titanium.

Big Dog
In general, the driver is the biggest golf club. Colloquially the driver is also called Big Dog. This term has its origin in a quotation from Kevin Costner. Golfers should not generally use this expression, but use it in special cases of using the driver. An example for that could be to play with the driver (or in this case the big dog) in order to catch up at a Match Play.

BIGGA
BIGGA is shorthand for British and International Golf Greenkeepers Association. Basically the association represents the interests of greenkeepers. Furthermore it processes and improves the profession greenkeeping. The equivalent in the USA is called GCSAA.

Bingo Bango Bongo
A variation of golf is called Bingo Bango Bongo. In there, the golfers' handicap is not respected, because the objectiv is, that the golf players play in the given order and be the first of something. Additionally there is a special scoring system, which can only differ at par-3-holes. So the golfer gains one point, if his golf ball reaches the green as first ball (bingo), if his ball is nearest to the pin (bango), or if his golf ball holes out as first of the whole flight (bongo).

Birdie
The term birdie is used, if a golf player holed out in one strike under par. So for instance a birdie is, if a golfer holes a par-5 hole with only four strokes. The expression is probably caused in the 19th century, because bird was something like cool back then. So the term a bird of a shot was allegedly shortened to birdie.

Bisque
An extraordinary golf competition is named bisque. In this version, the golfer determined by himself, at which hole he wants to use handicap strokes, so not in the conventional way that the handicap strokes are awarded with regard to the ranking of the holes at the golf course. In bisque, the player decides by himself and can use up to two handicap strokes for one hole. The characteristic is, that the golfer needs to announce it before the shot. So before he plays the hole he needs to tell all the other players, that he wants to use handicap strokes at that hole, and of course also how many he wants to use there.

Bisque Par
Bisque Par is a different version of playing golf. It is basically similar to Match Play vs. Par, because in there, the objective is to beat Par on each hole. So in the score card the coding is the following one: if a golfer scored a birdie, he or she writes a plus sign in the scorecard. If he or she scored exactly par, the golf player can write a zero in the card, and in case the score is worse than par, it will be marked with a minus sign in the scorecard. As it is a Match Play, golfers are allowed to use full handicaps. The speciality about “Bisque Par” is, that the golf players can decide on which holes they want to use their handicap and can even decide after shooting the hole, but before teeing off at the hole which follows.

Bisque Stroke
The Bisque Stroke is an illegal gifted stroke. So one golf player can present a so-called Bisque Stroke to another one. For the golfer who received the shot, it counts like a handicap stroke, but it's up to him where he wants to use it. The only requirement he needs to fulfill is, that he has to determine before the match begins at which hole he wants to use the Bisque Stroke.

Bite
The term bite refers in golf to the contact of the golf ball and the clubface, so the striking surface of a golf club. This rotation movement ensures, that the golf ball stops rapidly at the turf or the ball can even spin backwards. Other expressions for this effect are action or backspin.

Blade
A Blade is on the one hand side a special kind of iron. It has a thin topline but a smooth, full back. In the past all iron heads were forged and therefore known as blades. Furthermore it has a smaller sweet spot, because its weighting is concentrated behind the clubface center. Another characteristic of blades is, that they are usually forged and some golf players are convinced that with help of a blade they can more easily work the ball and feel softer at impact. On the other hand Blade also describes a putter, which has a thin clubface without flange, but which is heel-weightened and heel-shafted.

Blast Out
Blast, Blast shot or Blast out refers to a golf shot. In fact it is a golf shot which is played out of the bunker if for example a golf ball has settled down into the sand. Within this stroke a lot of sand flies out of the bunker and for that reason the special shot is called Blast.

Blind Bogey
Blind Bogey refers to a variation of different things in golf sport. On the one hand side, a Blind Bogey can be an 18 hole stroke play, in which the director selects a random score in the end, this score does not have to be one that actually was played, because the winner of the round is the golfer whose score is the closest to the randomly selected one. Another definition of Blind Bogey is, that at the beginning of a tournament all golfers can chose a handicap for themselves and tell it to the guard. Objective is, that the handicap helps the golf player to achieve a total net score in the 70s in the end. Finally the director choses a random number in the 70s and whose net score is the closest to this number wins the tournament. Additionally a different version of Blind Bogey is that at first every golfer in an tournament completes his round, afterwards the director choses six random holes and throw them out. The score composes out of the remaining 12 holes. The golfer with the lowest score wins the game. As it depends from golf club to golf club which blind bogey version is used there, it is the best to simply ask about the individual rules before playing.

Blind Hole
The Blind Hole is a term which is used if a golf player strokes without seeing the hole, because he can't see the hole or the flagstick. Before he strokes he can inform himself about the exact position and eventual hazards at the signs in the tee off area, but anyways blind holes are very challenging to play because the golfer can't exactly see how fast his golf ball goes to the hole. Blind Hole is additionally also a variation of golf, in which the golf players play an 18 hole round, but after the game only nine holes count and the golf players don't know which nine count.

Blind Nine
Blind Nine is another variation of playing golf. In there, golf players play a 18 hole round and after the game the directors decide nine holes that count – which holes is not clear beforehand.

Blind Shot
The term Blind Shot describes a hole, which the golfers are not able to see when they stroke. A golf player can inform himself in yardage books or at the signs in the tee off area about eventual hazards and also about the exact position of the hole. A Blind Shot is often built on purpose at the golf course to challenge the golfers, but it can also happen accidentally, when a golfer earlier shot bad and afterwards can't see the hole anymore. Another designation for Blind Shot is Blind Hole or only Blind.

Block
If a shot is strongly played to the right side, it is called block. In that shot, the golf ball started out right of the target line and gets more and more to the right side within the flight, so that finally at the hole it can't hole in, because it is to far to the right.

Blocks
Blocks is a term, which refers to two objects at the teeing area: they limit the forward boundary. They are also known as "tee blocks, tee markers or markers.

Bloodsomes
The bloodsomes is one variation of the match play. There are two teams playing against each other. Every golf player tees off and the other team can decide, with which golf ball they have to move forward in alternate shot manner. At every hole a new decision is required, and the golfer whose shot was taken has to tee off first at the following hole.

Blue Monster
Blue Monster is one of the most famous golf courses of the world, situated in Miami. Its name is the result out of the high frequency of water hazards at this golf course.

Blue Tees
The blue tees is the expression for the rearmost tees in a tee box. Usually there are three or more tee boxes at each hole. In the past there has been three tee boxes which were also colored, the red tees were the forward ones, the white ones the middle tees and the blue tees the back tees. Nowadays this color-variation is not used any more, because there are even more tees per hole. The Blue Tees are also called back tees or championship tees.

Bo Derek
The term Bo Derek in golf is used, if a golfer plays a score of 10 on any golf hole. The term is originally out of the movie 10, in Dudley Moore's desire was Bo Derek. But a 10 in golf is normally nobody's goal.

Bobbing
If a golf player raises and lowers the swing center within the swing, this act is called bobbing. The bobbing usually leads to an inconsistent ball striking and therefore it's not desired.

Bogey
Bogey as expression is used, if a golfer scored one stroke over par. So if a golf player for instance played a par-3s hole in four strokes, it is a bogey.

Bogey Golfer
A bogey golfer is one who constantly scores bogeys at each or nearly each hole. In total a “bogey golfer” then has an average score around 90. In the USGA Handicap index, the term has an important meaning concerning the handicap system: in the USGA Bogey Course Rating, the difficulty of a golf course for bogey golfers gets evaluated.

Bogey Rating
Bogey rating is basically the measurement of a golf course's degree of difficulty for average golfers. This in turn is essential for the USGA Handicap System.

Bonito
If a golf ball landed in a water hazard but directly skips out and therefore is immediately back in the play, this is usually called bonito. The expression probably has its origin in Australia. In the UK the situation is more commonly described by the term barnes wallis.

Bore-Through
Bore-Through is an expression concerning the golf clubs. It is a special golf club, in which the shaft goes into or through the clubhead to the sole of it. In fact, this design saves some weight and lowers the center of gravity. Additionally it can also lower the launch angle and can make the shaft play stiffer. But to re-shaft the bore-through clubs is usually very difficult.

Borrow
In general, a golf ball could be putt at the ideal line if the green is very straight. In case, the putting green is not straight, but sloped, the ball deviates from the ideal putting line and thereby he changes his direction – now away from the hole. This distance on the right or left side of the ideal straight line is called borrow or sometimes also break.

Bounce
The measurement of the angle from the front edge of a club's sole to the point on the sole, which rests on the ground at the address is called bounce. It is measured in degrees and the amount of bounce depends on the conditions. For playing golf courses with soft sand, more bounce is needed, but the other way round, if there is harder sand, the golfer needs less bounce. And also for example to play from the fairway there is less bounce needed.

Bounce Back
If a golf player scored a birdie or something better on one hole and at the next hole scored a bogey or even something worse, this succession is called bounce back.

Bowed
If a golf player bents his top wrist slightly inward at the top of the backswing this habit is called bowed.

Bowmaker
A bowmaker or bowmaker tournament is very common in the U.K. . The tournament is usually a team event in which the team members play with their own golf balls and a certain amount of the scores counts on the hole. So there are different variations of counting the scores per hole. One of it is for example to have teams with four members in each and count the two lowest scores per hole. The most common variation of scoring the bowmaker is Stableford.

Bramble
The Bramble is similar to the Scramble and in there the members of the team at first tee off and then the best drive is selected. The next stroke of members is from the location of the selected best drive, but all players from there on play with there own golf ball until each has holed out. So in the end there are four individual scores. In the end there are different variations of selecting the team score. One of it is, if the lowest ball counts as team score, or the sum of the two lowest counts. The Bramble is also known as Shamble.

Brassie
A further special golf club was called Brassie. It was a wood with a brass plate at the sole and a big loft. The name brassie is a derivation of the brass at the sole. Inbetween 1880 and 1890 the term was also for other woods with big loft. It is a close equivalent to the todays 2-woods. As the Brassie was especially for amateur golfers extremely hard to play, it is meanwhile replaced by a good driver.

Break
On principle a golf ball can be putt at straight at an ideal putting line. If the path to the hole itself curves or is somehow not straight, the putting line of the golf ball can't be straight. If the golf ball slopes at the green to the right or the left side, this effect is called break. But another term for the break is called borrow.

Breaky
If a putting line has more than one break, and the golf ball therefore can't be putt at an ideal putting line, one calls it breaky. If the whole green has more inclinations, the golfers also generally call the whole green breaky. Usually golfers need strokes over par, because even experienced golf players also need a little of luck for holing out with par.

Bridge
Bridge is an unofficially variation of playing golf. In general it can be played by two golf players or two teams with two golfers in each against each other. The most common way is to play bridge in teams. For every hole, there is a set amount of points and money agreed before the start of the round. And before the start it is also agreed whether the game should be played net or gross. At the tee box, before teeing of, one team bids on the number of strokes which they think they'll need. The other team has the options to take the bet, take the bet and double the points at the hole or to bid lower. If the bet is bid lower, the other team can again lower it. If the bet is taken and doubled, the other team can also double back. But if the teams play with money it is important to be careful by doubling because it can add up quickly. It is determined randomly which team starts bidding, but an important fact is, that at the following hole the team that lost the previous one is allowed to open the bidding there.

British Ball
The British Ball was a minimum size of golf balls which was legal by the R&A until 1990. But as the ball was illegal under the rules of the USGA, the term British ball or British Open ball was more common in the USA, whereas the golf ball was called small ball by British golf players. The USGA had a different small ball, the American Ball, which differentiated because it was a tiny bit larger than the British ball. On weight they were both the same, and on the size the British ball had 1.62 inches, whereas the American ball had 1.68 inches. In 1990 there was one small ball standardized. It has 1.68 inches now, and therefore the small ball is meanwhile nothing more than history.

Broomstick-Putter
The broomstick putter received its name because it has a very long shaft. It usually measures 50 inches or even more. Originally the upper end is anchored at the chin, sternum or chest of the golf player during his stroke. Golfers who struggle with yips often prefer the broomstick putter, because by anchoring the golfer gets more stability. But according to controversial discussions about the anchoring, a rule change outlaws the anchoring from January the 1, 2016 on. An additional designation for that type of putter is long putter.

Bubbas
A particular side bet in golf is known as Bubbas. Bubba Watson is the eponym for the side bet, because of his powerful drives. Thus the focus of the side bet lies on powerful drives and the winner of each hole is the golfer with the longest drive. Prior to the game the golfers should determine whether they play Bubbas and clarify which amount each victory has. Additionally they should specify how they define the bet, because they can obviously determine individual regulations. A common variation is for example, that in order to win, it is obligatory, that the longest drive reaches the fairway and in case no golfer manages this, the bet is carried over to the next hole. At the next hole the money values are added up, thus the hole has a double amount. The bet is more commonly known as Nicklauses and additional synonyms are Tigers or Dalys.

Buggy
The Buggy in golf is a device which transports a golfer's bag of clubs. The Buggy can be a passenger golf cart, in which a golf player is allowed to drive over the golf course. But on the other hand side it can also be a walking cart or push cart. The Buggy is called buggy in Europe and Australia, but in most of the other parts in the world it is called push cart.

Bulge
The term bulge refers to the clubface of a wood. As woods are a little bit curved inside themselves, they are curved from side to side, and from top to the bottom. The slight curve from side to side of the clubface is called bulge.

Bullarding
Bullarding is the term used for golf players who constantly play above their regular handicap and fail regularly in achieving anything in a competition. Bullarding is basically the opposite of sandbagging.

Bump-and-Run
The bump and run is a special shot in golf. In general it is an approach shot to the green, the approach shot is very short and flat. Usually it is a chip shot and the bump and run is played more along the ground. The shot is common at left courses and dry&windy locations, so always if the greens and fairways are harder. The shot is also called Chip and Run.

Bunker Shot
A Bunker Shot is the stroke which is played out of the bunker.

Buried Elephant
The term buried elephant in golf refers to a large mound or hump at the surface of the putting green.

Buried Lie
TThe term buried lie refers to a situation, in which the golf ball caused a pitch mark during his landing and instantly comes to rest in this ball mark. It often occurs in bunkers or soft turf and in case it happens in a bunker, the buried lie is also called fried egg. Other synonyms for the buried lie are plugged lie or plugged ball.

Burn
A small river, stream or creek through the golf course is called burn. The Burn is a water hazard but the term is mostly used in Great Britain, but not that often in the USA.

Buy.com Tour
For three seasons, from 2000 until 2002, the Web.com Tour was called Buy.com Tour. As Buy.com was the biggest sponsor in this time, the tour was named after it. In 2003 the tour got renamed in Nationwide Tour and since June 2012, it is called Web.com Tour.

Buzzard
Another name for the double bogey is buzzard. It is a score with two shots over par. In the past, so in the early parts of the 20th century, the term was commonly used, whereas today buzzard is not any more part of the main vocabulary of modern golf.

Bye
If a match finished early, because one player or one team won by a large margin, the golf players can decide to play the remaining holes anyways. The game of those last holes is called bye. Normally the loser of the bye has to buy the first drinks in the clubhouse after finishing.

Byron Nelson Award
The Byron Nelson Award is on the one hand side the trophy presented by the winner of the PGA Tour, and on the other hand side the one presented to the lowest scorer of the Champions Tour.

C

Cabbage
The deep or thick vegetation or rough outside the fairway is called cabbage. If a golf ball landed in the cabbage it is very hard to play it because the turf is too high to play properly.

Caddie
A person who supports the golf player in several things and who is allowed to walk with the golfer on the round is called caddie. The caddie can support in carrying the bag, tending the flagstick, holding an umbrella or is even allowed to give for example advice about the club selection or the wind direction. It's up to the golf player itself how much he wants the caddie to do for him. Golf pro's usually have caddies, but amateur golfers often don't. For golf pro's is the general rule, that they are remunerated pro rata.

Calcutta
Calcutta is an expression that is usually done at a tournament with 4-person teams. In there, golfers bid who, thus which golfer or team, will win the tournament. It is also allowed to bid on oneself or the own team. The person who bids gives money into the pot. The ones who won, so bet on the winning team get an amount agreed upon out of the pot. The rest of the money is divided in the people who also bet and whose team made the second-place team. The rules regarding the distribution of the money can vary.

Call Up
If one flight reached the green, it is common to call up for the next flight at some golf courses. Thereby the next flight doesn't have to wait until the front flight finished the hole. The front flight can also call up the rear flight, if they want them to play through. A synonym for call up is wave up.

Callaway System
The Callaway System or Callaway Scoring System is a special system of scoring the handicap. This system is usually used at events where the golfers don't have handicap indexes. It only considers the score of the golfer in combination with a special chart.

Camber
Camber is an expression concerning the soles of the golf clubs and in principle it describes their curvature. As there are the different curvatures, side-to-side and front-to-back, the camber usually describes both. But usually the clubfitting only refers to the front-to-back camber. Out of more camber on the rear part of the sole results less bounce angle. If the sole is cambered, the golf club moves more smoothly at the turf. So in general a cambered sole makes the golf club more playable.

Canadian Foursome
In an Canadian Foursome there are two teams with two golfers in each team. The two persons in a team both tee off. Afterwards the best ball is selected and both play in alternate shot style with this ball until it is holed out. This process is repeated for the whole round at each hole. Further designations for this golf format are Scotch Foursomes, Modified Pinehurst or Greensomes.

Cape Hole
Cape hole is the term for a hole on a golf course which needs to be played around a large, lateral hazard. The risky part out of it is the tee shot. Most of the time the hazard is a water hazard which extends the entire length of the hole.

Captain's Choice
The Captain's Choice is a synonym for Scramble. In there, two teams with two players in each team play against each other. At first, every player tees off, afterwards the team decides together which golf ball will be the ball in play, but in Captain's Choice the Captain has the last choice in every case. This golf ball will be marked with a ball mark and every player of the team plays with his own golf ball from this position. It continuous in this process until the golf ball is holed out. The procedure is repeated at every hole.

Captain's Pick
If a golfer failed to meet the criteria required for the automatic membership on a team, the team's captain can add the golf player to his team. This privilege of the captain is called Captain's Pick, but also known as Captain's selection or wildcard.

Carry
Carry has several meanings, on the one hand side, as a verb it means that a golf player clears an obstacle on the golf course. On the other hand side, as a noun it describes the distance, which the shots travel from the contact of contact with the club until they hit the ground. Knowing the own carry is for example important if a golfer wants to cross a water hazard.

Carryover
If one hole is played tie in a match, the bet is carried over to the next hole and played there.

Cart
A Cart or Golf Cart is a vehicle to transport golf players together with their equipment from one hole to another one over the golf course. The cart can be an electrical or gas-powered vehicle with four wheels. On the other hand side it can also be a hand-pulled vehicle with two wheels or a hand-pushed one with three wheels. The last two presented vehicles can also be bought in powered versions which are controlled by a remote.

Cart Fee
In general a Cart Fee is the amount a golf course requests for using a golf cart. There exists no fix amount, it varies from golf course to golf course. Additionally some the golf courses differentiate whether the golfer plays nine holes or the full round with 18 holes and also how many riders use the cart.

Cart Jockey
The Cart Jockey is a person who looks after the golf carts of the golf course. Not only servicing the carts, but also assisting customers with the cart service. The duties of a cart jockey are for example to drive a cart out of the parking lot, to clean up the empty golf carts or to ferry the golf players and their bags from the parking lot to the clubhouse.

Cart Path
The Cart Path is the route around a golf course which the golf carts should follow. At most of the golf courses a cart path is paved, and usually it is not allowed to drive the golf cart off the path, and it depends on the rules of the golf course, but sometimes it is also allowed to drive off the path.

Cart Path Only
Cart Path Only is a condition for golfers, which can exist all the time at a golf course, but it can also be a temporal limitation for example after rain in order to protect the turf. In any case, if there is the condition cart path only, the golfers are not allowed to drive their carts anywhere else than at the cart path.

Carve
The term carve was often used in the past to describe a shot which gets shaped and bended in order to fit the hole's terrain. The expression can also be applied if the golf ball needs to curve around anything.

Casting from the top
If a golf player prematurely releases his wrists at the downswing, this process is called casting, early hit or hitting from the top. The result is, that the golfer loses power and control.

Casual Water
Casual Water is in golf the expression for any kind of water which is not intentional and only temporary at the golf course. For example one type of casual water are puddles of rainwater that will disappear when the sun shines, whereas a lake doesn't count as casual water, a lake counts as water hazard. Casual water is no water hazard, it counts as abnormal ground condition and therefore it's also treated in a different way. According to rule 25, a golfer is entitled to relief his golf ball without any punishment if it fell into casual water.

Cat Box
As a bunker with its litter reminds on a cat box, it became a vernacular term for bunker. Additionally kitty litter has the same meaning.

Cavity Back
The Cavity Back is a special construction of golf clubs. Those are irons, in which the mass is mostly shifted to the edge of the clubhead, and the back of the clubhead has been hollowed out, so that a cavity results. Therefore the Cavity Back received its name. Because of its special design, this type of irons forgives more mis-hits.

cc/Cubic Centimeters
Cubic centimeters or the abbreviation cc are used to indicate the volume of a clubhead in golf. The greater the number is, the larger is the clubhead. The greater the clubhead of a golf club is, the larger is also the sweetspot and the more forgiving is the golf club. So a greater clubhead is easier to play than a smaller one.

Center Cut
Basically, the term center cut has two different definitions in golf. On the one hand side it can be used in order to describe if the hole or the flagstick are located near or directly in the middle of the putting green. On the other hand the expression center cut is also used if shots travel down the middle. A center-cut putt is for instance when a putt falls into the middle of a cup.

Center of Gravity
The center of gravity is where the head of a golf club would be entirely balanced. The center of gravity can influence the trajectory of shots. If there is for instance a center of gravity position that is low and toward the back of the clubhead, the golfer is able to shot a higher trajectory.

Center Shafted
The term center shafted describes the modality in which the shaft enters the clubhead of a putter. If the shaft is connected to the clubhead near the center, the putters are called center shafted. This variation of putters has always been legal in the USGA and the R&A, except from the years 1910-1951. Such a center shafted putter suits golf players who stand at adress with their eyes directly over the golf ball and don't use forward press.

Centrifugal Force
The centrifugal force is inside a rotating body and its intention is moving mass away from the center. A golfer can feel this force at the downswing, it pulls the clubhead outward and also downward. Additionally this force is responsible for extending the arms at the downswing and helps to take a circular path.

Center of Rotation
The axis and the swing center around which the body winds and unwinds in times of the swing is the center of rotation.

Championship
The Championships are tournaments which are officially accepted by the R&A. Those tournaments are regulated by a golfing authority.

Championship Course
In the past, if a golf club had more than one golf courses, like for example one with nine holes and one with 18 holes, the championship course was the more challenging and in general better course and of course it needed to have 18 holes because it was used for championships. Nowadays the term became more or less a marketing expression, because it is often used to show the quality of a golf course, even if it is the only one of a golf club, thus just to make sure that it is also used for championships and convince golfers to play at this golf course.

Championship Tees
The Championship Tees are the tees from which a golfer tees off at a championship. Those tee boxes are the rearmost at the golf course, so they are the ones with the longest distance to the hole. Thus if a golfer shots the whole round from the championship tees, he plays the course at the maximum length. The championship tees are also known as back tees.

Chapman System
The Chapman System is a golf variation named after the amateur golf player Dick Chapman who invented the game at the Pinehurst Resort golf course. For that reason it is sometimes also called Pinehurst. In this golf variation, there are two teams with two golfers in each. The game works like this: At first, both players of one team tee off. Afterwards, they do their second stroke with the golf ball of the other one, and if they both finished their second shot, they decide together which golf ball has the best position. If they designated the better ball, they play alternately with this one, so only with one golf ball, until it is holed out. This process is repeated at every single hole in the round. The Chapman System can either be played as stroke play, or as match play. Additionally the Chapman System is called American Foursomes.

Characteristic Time
The Characteristic time is a time, that is measured by the USGA and the R&A in order to find out, if the spring-like-effect of drivers is conforming with the limits within the Rules of Golf. So in fact it is the contact point of the clubface and the golf ball and this time is measured in microseconds. This springiness of the clubface is responsible how far the golf ball can fly. Until 2004, the USGA and the R&A tested the spring-like effect while measuring the coefficient of restitution. But in the early 2000s the R&A and the USGA had disagreements about what should be the limit of the coefficient of restitution, so they agreed on the measure method “characteristic time”.

Chicago
Chicago is a special golf tournament, in which the game starts with a negative amount of points. The amount is based on their handicap and golf players try to add positive points during the round by there strokes. During the round, the positive points are added at the basis, that bogeys are worth 1 point, pars are worth 2 points, birdies are worth 4 points, whereas a golfer who shot an eagle gets 8 points.

Chicken Run
Another type of golf tournament is the so-called chicken run. This tournament takes place in the late afternoon, normally after a workday, and it has only 9-holes in length. The name has its origin therein, that chicken run tournaments are performed in the late afternoons in the summer months. Other terms for the chicken run are sundowner or twilight tournament.

Chicken Stick
Basically, chicken stick is the slang term for the 3-iron golf club. This golf club is used, if a golfer doesn't want to risk anything, but plays with a safe club. The choice of the chicken stick is often the right decision, but sometimes the other golf players use the term derisively.

Chicken Wing
In the chicken wing a golfer makes a swing mistake. His leading elbow bends at an angel and points away from the body. A blocked or pushed shot is typically the consequence for this wrong body position.

Chili Dip
The Chili Dip is an expression for a kind of mis-hit. It describes the situation when a golfer stuck his golf club behind the ball and thereby the club digs the turf but has no or only little contact with the golf ball itself. Therefore the golf ball doesn't fly very far, and the stroke is a mis-hit.

Chip/Chip Shot
A special shot in golf is called chip or chip shot. Golfers play this shot from close to the green. Within a chip shot, the golfer pops the golf ball into the air, afterwards the ball hits the ground and rolls forward. For playing a chip shot, a golf player usually uses a wedge, but he can use any golf club for shooting a chip. The difference to a pitch shot is, that a pitch shot normally has a higher trajectory and the shot lands closer to the pin, afterwards the golf ball rolls just a bit within a pitch shot. So usually chip shots are played from closer to the green, whereas pitch shots are played from farther off the green. Characteristic for chip shots is, that the golf ball rolls longer on the ground than it is in the air.

Chip-In
The Chip-In is a very desired form of the chip shot. Within that chip shot, the golf ball just holes out and don't needs to be putt again at the putting green, because the golfer chipped the ball into the hole. Professional golf players are often able to play a chip-in on purpose, but amongst amateur golfers it is a rather rare shot.

Chip-Off
Within a chip-off, golfers challenge each other at a selected chip shot and see who went closer to the hole, in order to break a tie. A synonym for chip-off is a play-off.

Chip Out
If a golf player brought himself into an uncomfortable situation, for example when he shot the golf ball in an area of trees or wood, he can extricate himself out of the trouble by hitting a relatively small chip shot, because a longer shot is needed but obstructed. This process is called chip out.

Chip and Run
A chip and run is a variation of a golf shot. Basically the chip and run is like a chip shot an approach shot to the green, but the shot is very flat and short. It is played more along the ground than a traditional chip shot. Usually the shot is played at dry and windy locations or left courses. Generally the chip and run is always played, when the greens and fairways are harder. A synonym for the chip and run is bump and run.

Chippies
In general, a chippie is a side bet in golf. It is all about a chip-In, so when the golf ball is off the green and a golfer chips it with one shot into the hole. Usually, if golfers agreed on a chippie, they set an amount agreed upon. Golfers can make additional agreements like for instance how far the golf ball needs to be away from the hole.

Chipping Iron
Golfers can generally use any golf club they want for chipping, but there are also special chipping irons. Golf players often use those chipping irons in the process of chipping the golf ball onto the green.

Choke
In golf, a so-called choke is a mis-hit shot, sometimes caused by a golfer's inability to handle the pressure. But sometimes it is also caused by the position of a golfer's hands on the handle of a golf club. The Choke can basically also be the poor playing in a round after the golfer had the position to win.

Choke Down/Choke Up
To Choke down or Choke up are terms that can be used in different meanings, but usually golfers use them in the same context and therefore they made them having the same meaning. The expressions are used if a golf player moves his hands closer to the bare shaft, so towards the bottom of the grip. This behaviour can have several origins, but it's always for the same reason: getting more control during the swing. This process increases for example the control of the club during the swing and also takes some distance off. So in case the golfer in at a special yardage where he is directly in the quandary of not knowing which golf club is better, the shorter or the longer one, he might take the shorter one and choke down for reasons of better control.

Choker Tournament
In a choker tournament there are always teams with three or four persons. One of the members plays alone at each hole and this score counts as half of the team score at each hole. As this player takes a great responsibility he stands under a lot of pressure. For that reason this golf player is allowed to choke – that permission is the origin of the name. The rules in the choker tournament can vary, thus for example the choker title can rotate, so at each hole another member is the choker.

Chunk/Chunk Shot
Chunk or Chunk shot is a mis-hitten golf shot. In there, the golf club strikes the ground before it strikes the golf ball and in the process the club digs into the turf and produces a divot. As a consequence the club can't hit the golf ball properly and the ball won't go very far and at the same time it feels terrible because of the collision of the golf club with the ground.

Church Pews bunker
The Oakmont Country Club accommodates a large bunker called church pews. This bunker is one of the most famous hazards in the world. It is situated between the third and fourth fairway at the Oakmont Country Club and is a hazard for both holes. The bunker got his name because its surface is broken up by 12 grass rows. As those rows look like church pews the bunker is called church pews bunker. At first the rows were only seven, then they extended the rows up to twelve in total. At the golf course there is a second bunker alongside the 15th fairway which is sometimes called mini-Church Pews because it is smaller, but in fact designed in the same way.

Circle on the Scorecard
As the Circle on the Scorecard is another term for the birdie, it describes a score one stroke under par on a hole. The name has its origin therein, that some golfers denote the birdie in the scorecard by circling the score, so they can count the birdies easily after the round.

Claret Jug
The Claret Jug is the trophy awarded to the winner of The Open Championship in Great Britain. The trophy is officially known as Championship Cup, but because of its shape it is vernacularly also known as Claret Jug. The Cup is made based on the model of the style of silver jugs at the 19th century.

Claw Grip
The claw grip is a method of gripping the putter. Characteristically is, that the fingers of the bottom hand curl over the top of the club's grip and not under the grip as more usual. Synonyms for that are gator grippsycho grip.

Cleek
Cleek is the expression for a former golf club. It was basically an iron with a narrow face and little loft. It is comparable to today's 1-irons. There were also variations of the Cleek, like the wooden cleek, which was equivalent to a 4-wood, it had a club little loft and a wooden head. Another variation was for putting, it was called the putting cleek.

Clone
A Clone is a golf club, that copies the look and the characteristics of an more expensive club but the clone has no patents.

Closed Face
A closed face at the position of a clubface relatively to the target line at the moment of the clubface striking the golf ball. The toe of a club is turned a little inward at a closed face. Additionally the angle is less than 90 degrees with a closed face. Furthermore the closed face is one of the common causes for a hook or a pull.

Closed Grip
A very strong grip, where both hands are turned away from the hole is called closed grip.

Closed Stance
When the rear foot is pulled back away from the target line whereas the front foot is closer to the golf ball at address, it is called closed stance.

Closed-to-Open
Closed-to-Open is the term describing that the clubhead is closest on the backswing, but afterwards manipulated into an open position on the downswing.

Closest Point of Relief
Closest point of relief is the designation for a situation, in which golf players are allowed to drop the golf ball without penalty within the play. It is regulated, that this procedure is allowed in order to release the golf ball from an immovable obstruction, from abnormal ground conditions or in case the ball is positioned on the wrong green. The further specification is, that within the closest point of relief is only allowed to drop the golf ball in the size of one golf club length, thus the interference can no longer distract the golf ball. A commonly known synonym is nearest point of relief.

Closest to the Pin
A contest called closest to the pin designates a par-3 hole and gives a special award on that hole. This contest mostly takes place at club tournaments and the golfer who tees off and plays closest or nearest to the pin wins the contest. It is additionally also known as nearest to the pin.

Club
The expression golf club describes basically three different meanings. On the one hand side it is part of the equipment, so the device you do your strokes with. Furthermore it can also describe a golf course or a special golf facility, whereas on the other hand side the term golf club can also refer to a group or an association of golf players, the most popular ones are the USGA and the R&A golf association.

Club Loft
The Club Loft is a very important part of the golf club, because it can influence the flight and the distance of the golf ball at the stroke. In fact it is the angle of the club face.

Club Professionals
Golf professionals can either be touring golf professionals and therefore playing at different golf courses more or less for themselves, so not playing for any golf club, or the pro golfers can be so-called club professionals meaning they are connected with any golf club.

Clubface
The clubface is the surface of a golf club which strikes the golf ball at impact. So in fact, the clubface is an essential part of the golf club. Characteristically for the clubfaces of irons is, that they have grooves in regular intervals. In general diver clubfaces do not have grooves, but in order to look similar to irons, they sometimes have cosmetic lines on the clubfaces, those lines are called scorelines. The iron clubfaces are flat, whereas the clubfaces of woods are very marginally curved from side to side, this is called bulge, and from top to bottom, which is called roll.

Clubfitting
The expression clubfitting refers to the adjustment of the golf club for the individual needs of the golf player. The clubfitting includes for example the length of the shaft or the grip can be individually modified.

Clubhead
The part of the golf club which is on one end of the shaft is the clubhead. It is built for striking the golf ball. There are in general many variations of the clubhead. The clubhead can be flat like for example in traditional irons, or it can be large and rounded, like for instance the metal wood clubheads. Furthermore the clubheads can also be hollow, like wood or hybrid clubheads. The design of a clubhead can have influence in the center of gravity, the moment of inertia or in general how the golf ball flies after the impact.

Clubhead Speed
A special measure how fast the clubhead of a golf club is travelling at the impact of the ball is the clubhead speed. The speed is measured in miles per hour and often recorded by a launch monitor or a different radar-employing device. Usually male golfers reach a speed of about 85 mph, and female golf players about 60 mph. Professional Golfers can easily surpass this and reach speed between 90 and 115 mph. A common synonym for clubhead speed is swing speed.

Clubhouse
The main building at a golf course is called clubhouse. It usually contains a pro shop for the golfers check and payment and a food and drink service. Sometimes there are also a bar, locker rooms for golfers or a meeting room in the clubhouse, depending on how large it is. Nowadays, not every golf club has a clubhouse, but the more exclusive the golf course is, and the more expensive it is to play there, the more likely there will be a large and detailed clubhouse. The clubhouse is often also known as hole 19, because golfers usually go there after finishing the round, so the 18th hole.

C.O.D.
C.O.D. is the abbreviation for Cart, Opposites, DriversCart, so at the first six holes, the golfers who share the cart are partners. The holes 7-12 are called Opposites, so in there, the driver of one cart plays in a team with the passenger of the other cart. As the name of the third partnership, so the holes from 13-18, is Drivers, obviously the drivers play together in one team and the passengers built the other team. This variation of the game is also commonly known as Round Robin.

Cocked Wrists
The cocked wrists is a description of the position of wrists. During the backswing the wrists are turned clockwise and they should be fully cocked at the beginning of the downswing.

Coefficient of Restitution
The more energy is transferred from the golf club to the golf ball at the impact, the farther the golf ball can travel. The measurement of the energy that gets lost at the impact is called coefficient of restitution. This coefficient is usually measured for drivers, but it can be measured for all golf clubs. The scale of measurement goes from 0.000, where all energy is lost in the collision and none is transferred, until 1.000, where all energy gets transferred and the shot is perfect in this respect. The measurement is generally affected by the clubhead and the ball material. At the moment, the USGA and the R&A both place a limit of 0.830 in the coefficient of restitution, so it is not allowed to go above that in a club. A very usual abbreviation is COR.

Coil
Coil is the expression which is used to describe for turning the body during the backswing.

Collar
The turf, which is arranged like a ring around the putting green is called collar in golf. The grass is a little bit higher than the one on the putting green, but slightly shorter than the turf on the fairway. If a golf ball rests on the collar, it can't be lifted, because it is regarded as off the green. Additionally, at professional tours even if the stroke was made with a putter, the golf ball which struck from the collar is not considered as a putt for reasons of statistical tracking. Sometimes the collar is also called fringe, apron or frog hair.

Collection Area
As the name says, in the collection area, something is collected. In fact, the area collects golf balls in it, because it is a sector at the golf course, which has a lowering at one side of a green, so that a lot of approach shots will roll into the collection area. Thus knowing where the collection area is, is very useful in order not to hit the hay. But collection areas are not that common, so more or less it's kind of a “special feature” at golf courses.

Come-Backer
If a putt went past the hole, a come-backer putt is the one, which is required after the mis-hit.

Come Over the Top
The Come Over the Top is a movement which begins at the downswing and transmits the club outside the ideal swing path and also hands the clubhead over from outside the target line at impact. A synonym for this swing is outside-inside swing.

Committee
The committee is the term describing the modification of the rules of golf. It is basically invented, because every golf course is different in its circumstances and characteristics, so there are elected club members at the local golf courses, whose job it is to set and push through the local rules. Thus the committee are those members who manage the modification of the rules of golf with regard to the local circumstances. The committee is also known as rules committee or local committee.

Competition Scratch Score
In a Competition Scratch Score all recorded scores in a competition are used in order to recalculate the handicap after the competition. The Competition Scratch Score can differ from the “Standard Scratch Score” one shot below up to three shots above.

Compression
The compression evaluates, how dense a golf ball is. In the golf industry, the compression is indicated as a number between 0 and 200. The number shows deformation of the soft- or hardness of the golf ball if compressing pressure affects it. The compression shows, how much the form of the golf ball changes under the weight of the ball. In fact it shows the soft- or hardness of the golf ball. 200 is the hardest, 0 is the softest. Usually the compression between 80 and 90 is most commonly used.

Conceded Putt
A conceded ball is a gifted one. The opponent presents a hole to you, which you don't need to hole out, because whenever he tells you to concede you a ball, it is automatically considered as holed out. The conceded putts are only allowed at the match play, but not at all in stroke play. Another common name for the conceded putt is concession.

Concession
The concession is only allowed in the match play, but not at all in the stroke play. It is usually the gift of a putt, a hole or the whole match. To concede a putt to an opponent means, that it is automatically holed out. It shows, that the putt has been good anyways and the golfer would have anyways holed out. To concede a hole usually means some kind of giving up, because the opponent would win the hole anyways. In total, it is a saving of time and used to faster move on to next hole. The match concession means to give up the entire match, if it seems to be totally hopeless to win the match anymore. Conceding a whole match is very unusual and shows bad respect and attitude, because golfers should still keep playing even if a victory is hopeless.

Condor
A score with four strokes under par at one individual hole is a condor. As it's only possible with two strokes at a par-6 hole or by acing a par-g hole, the condor is extremely rare. But until today, no golfer has ever played a condor at a par-6 hole. In general a golfer doesn't only need to have a lot of golf skills, but also a positive interaction of many aspects, like for example tailwind and sloping fairways. Other synonyms are triple eagle and double albatross.

Connection
The connection is the expression for a special swing in golf. In there, all parts of the body work together for the result of a fluid movement within the swing.

Consecutive Nine-Hole Scores
The consecutive nine-hole scores are a combination of two separately played nine hole rounds. The requirement is to play the rounds within seven days in order to arrive at a score which is suitable for an adjustment of the handicap.

Conservation of Angular Momentum (COAM)
The conservation of angular momentum is a law of physics. In there, huge amounts of kinetic energy are produced by the golfer. In general, the golf player shifts its body towards the target in the forward swing. Additionally in order to extend his position, he pulls his mass away from the center. In golf, this conservation of angular momentum nowadays has several different designations, like delayed hit, late hit, connection, lag loading, the keystone, but if it is correctly accomplished, it is colloquially called good timing.

Continuous Putting
Continuous putting is the process of putting immediately again, without waiting for the rest of the flag. It is usually performed, when the golfer putted the golf ball so close to the hole, that it is more easily to simply putt again and hole out, than to mark the ball and wait until it is his turn again. When continuous putting is useful can be judged individually. An indicator is the distance from the hole.

Contour
Contour has in golf the special meaning of an undulation in the putting green, so it contains swales or ridges and other types of undulations. The contour causes a break of the golf ball. It can also appear in other parts of the golf course, but usually this term is used to describe the surface of the putting green.

Contoured Green
A putting green, which includes a lot of undulation like ridges, hollows or swales is called contoured green. Those irregularities can evoke breaks. Therefore contoured greens are hard to putt, but even those have to have some flat sections to make sure, the golf ball can be holed out. The Augusta National Golf Club is famous for its heavily contoured putting greens.

Cool-Season Grasses
A special variety of grass which grows the best in cool conditions are called cool-season grasses. This type is especially used at golf courses which are situated in regions with cooler temperatures. A very famous variety of cool-season grass is bentgrass. This is a popular putting green – it is so acclaimed, that for example the Augusta National Golf Club installed an air conditioning system to produce a cooler surface in order to be able to use bentgrass at their putting greens.

Coring
When used in golf, coring is a special method of maintaining putting greens or fairways. Within the coring, there is a process of aeration, thus the soil is loosened and the technique also opens growing room for turfgrass roots and the aeration process also helps the nutrients to get to the roots. The process is done with a special machine, which removes small cores of sod from the green and leaves a little hole.

Count-Back
Count-back is a method of defining a winner, when the round ended with a tie. There are various procedures to determine a winner, but usually the scores of the last nine, six, three and the final hole are compared in order to nominate the final winner.

Country Club
The country club is a social and recovery facility which sells memberships and therefore gives the members the possibility to use its facilities. A typical country club contains a golf course, and tennis or swim facilities. The country club can be either very private and expensive, or semi-private for example in also giving non-members the possibility to play at the golf course and therefore the membership is less expensive. At most country clubs it is possible to play their golf course if they are guests of a member no matter whether the club is very private, or not.

Course
The golf course is the entire designated area, in which it is allowed to play golf. So it includes all holes from hole one to hole 18 with its fairways and putting greens and also the driving range.

Course Furniture
Course furniture is an expression which includes all the accessories and amenities in and around a golf course. It contains for example the ball washers, the tee markers, yardage markers or also the on-course benches. Course furniture is only for the actual furniture at the outside of a golf course, but not inside the clubhouse.

Course Handicap
The USGA course handicap is basically a special number telling the golf players how many handicap strokes they get to apply in one round of golf. In the USGA Handicap System the handicap index of an golfer gets factored by the difficulty of a golf course and the result out of that is the course handicap of the golfer. Your course handicap distributes you strokes for each of the heaviest holes.

Course Handicap Conversion Chart
If a golf course is part of the USGA Handicap System, the stroke index of each hole on the course is available on a special conversion chart.

Course Management
The course management are the tactics, decisions and strategies of an golfer and how he generally plays the golf course. Thus a good course management means the golf player makes good decisions with regard to for example his golf club selection or his putting lines. In the opposite a bad course management means a golfer makes the wrong choices and therefore fails at the holes or the whole round.

Course Rating
The Course Rating is a special rating of the USGA concerning the measurement of the difficulty of an golf course for scratch golfers. In general the course rating is expressed in strokes, if a golf course with the usual par statement of par-72, is easy to play, it has for example course rating of 68.9, whereas if it is difficult to play, it could for instance have a course rating of 74.5. Normally the USGA Course Rating is also signed in the scorecard of the particular golf course and takes part in the USGA Handicapping System. The Course Rating is very important for the calculation of the USGA Handicap Index.

Cricket
One special side bet in golf is called cricket. The basic structure is, that groups consisting of three golfers play and per hole six points are determined in a predefined order. The order is defined by the lowest, middle or highest score per hole. The golf player who used the lowest strokes for holing out a particular hole earns four points, the golfer with the middle score at this hole receives two points and the high score player doesn't earn any point. If two golf players tie, it is again specified. In case they tie on the low score, each of them gains three points and the third golfer obviously doesn't earn a point. And in case all the team members reach the same score at an individual hole, each of them earns either zero or two points. The distributed points can either have a monetary amount or bragging rights, but in any case it has to be defined prior to playing. Further designations for the betting game are English, Split Sixes or 6-Point Game.

Criers and Whiners
Criers and Whiners is the game of mulligans, that means it is a replay of a shot, when you first hit a bad shot. Criers and Whiners can be used from any position at the gold course. In fact, it converts the handicap of a golfer into free shots which he can use during the round. Thus his free shots are not connected to any part holes. Criers and Whiners can be modified, so it can be used in combination with the full handicap, but usually it is played with two thirds of the handicap, thus the golfers are more careful in using the free shots. Additionally it is normally not allowed to replay the first tee shot and one tee shot can only be replied twice, not more often. Criers and Whiners can be played in an tournament or for pleasure among golf friends.

Criss Cross
One variation of golf is called Criss Cross - it can be played in an tournament format as well as as betting game for pleasure. That game can be either played in a team or as single player. The main focus is to compare the front 9 holes with the back 9 holes are compared. Thus the first pair is hole 1 with hole 10, the last is hole 9 with hole 18. Within the pairs, the lower score gets circled. In the end, the nine circled holes get added up and count as total score. In the tournament format, the game is played in whole flights and the handicaps are used to determine the golfers to the fitting flights.

Croqued Style
If golfers suffer from the yips, this putting stance is often used. Within this putting stance, the golfer stands aside the golf ball and thereby he faces the hole. Furthermore he holds the club with a widely-split grip and in the end he strikes the ball with some kind of a croquet stroke. The USGA banned a stroke in a similar style, where the golfer faced the hole and thereby positioned the golf ball in between his feet.

Cross Bunker
A cross bunker is a bunker, that the golfer has to cross on the usual line for playing the hole. There are no standards of cross bunkers in regard to the size, the shape, the depth or the position. But they are commonly wider than deep and can be positioned totally on a fairway or only partially and partially in the rough. Of course it can also be the other way round, so completely in the rough. As you need to play the hazard in order to play the ideal line of play, they are a challenging hazard.

Cross-handed
The cross-handed grip is a putting or full-swing grip. Characteristically for the grip is, that the hands are placed oppositely to the traditional grip. Thus it means, that right-handed golf players place their left hand below their right hand. For left-handed golfers it is exactly the other way round. Golfers who had yips could combat it with help of the cross-handed grip, for that reason it became popular. A synonym for the cross-handed grip is left-hand low.

Crown
When used in golf, crown refers to the top surface of the clubhead. Thus exactly the part of the golf club a golfer sees, when he is in the address position. The expression is usually used for drivers, woods, fairways and hybrids. Meanwhile special materials allowed lighter crowns in the drivers and for that reason the weighting and balance can be calculated in a new way in order to make the golf club even more playable.

Crowned Green
If a putting green, has its highest point near the center, and therefore it slopes down from the middle to the edges, it is called crowned green. Crowned means it slopes away from the middle line. So in fact it could also be used for example for the teeing ground or the fairways, but usually it refers to putting greens. Another term with the same meaning is domed green.

CT
CT is the abbreviation for characteristic time. In fact, the USGA and the R&A measure this time, to find out, if the spring-like-effect of drivers is conforms with the limits of the Rules of Golf. Namely the springiness is the contact of the clubface and the golf ball is measured in microseconds. The springiness is responsible how far the golf ball can fly.
The USGA and the R&A measured the spring-like effect with help of the coefficient of restitution until 2004. As the R&A and the USGA had a disagreement in the early 2000s about what the limit of the coefficient of restitution should be, they agreed on the measure method characteristic time.

Cup
Cup is a synonym for the hole on the putting green. So it is the final goal of every golfer to get his golf ball in the hole as fast as he can. In fact, the cup is a real element of the hole, because it is the receptacle made of white plastic in the hole. It is responsible to keep the flagstick upright and also for the little sound, at the moment the golf ball falls into the hole and meets the plastic of the cup.

Cup Lining /Cup Liner
The cup lining or cup liner is the special plastic part in the hole or inside the cup, which is responsible for keeping the flagstick upright.

Cupped Wrist
At the cupped wrist, the left hand of a right-handed golfer, or the right hand of an left-handed golf player hings outward at top of the backswing.

Cuppy Lie
The cuppy lie is a position, where the golf ball sits down slightly and additionally also in a small hollow.

Cut
When used in golf, the term cut has several meanings. In a golf tournament, it is the elimination of the lower half of a stroke-play field in the middle of the tournament. Usually the top half of the golf players can move forward in playing the tournament, whereas the bottom half played too bad in the tournament and therefore is forced to go home. There can also be more than one cut within a tournament.
Furthermore a cut can be a special golf shot in which the golfer causes a fade. Thus a right-handed golfer makes the golf ball curving from the left to the right side and a left-handed golfer makes it exactly the other way round.
The third common meaning of the cut is the positioning of the cup on the green. Thus its meaning refers to the hole-cutting tool which was used to remove turf and sod where the cup is positioned.

Cut Line
In golf, the cut line is a score which divides the golfers in a stroke-play tournament in two halves. The ones who are allowed to continue playing and the other ones who are not allowed any more. So at the cut line only the top scorers are allowed to move forward. But there are also specific rules concerning the cut line in the different tournaments.

Cut Shot
In fact, the cut shot is a controlled golf shot, that causes a fade. That means for a right-handed golf player he controls the golf ball to from the left side to the right side. A left-handed golfer makes the ball going from the right side to the left side. This can for example be very useful if a golfer wants to play around and hazard.

Cut Throat
The cut throat is a variation of playing at the tee boxes. At first, each member of a flight or group places his golf ball on the ground near the tee marker on one side of the tee box. The golfers are forced to use the club with which they'll tee off. Then they knock the golf ball across the tee box and hit the far tee marker. The procedure moves forward by going back to the side of the tee box where it started, hit that tee marker and hit the golf balls of the partners with the own golf ball. When the golfer failed in process, it's the turn of another golfer. When he didn't fail it's his tun until he fails. The game is only allowed, when there are not any other flights at the tee box, which want to tee off, so it's not allowed to hold up another group because of playing cut throat.

D

Daily Fee Course
A golf course, which is privately owned but at the same time open to the general public, is called “daily fee course”. Usually those courses are nowadays more expensive and therefore more upscale. The name is owed to the start of opening public courses by private companies: their marketing trick was to offer daily fees, so the golfers didn't have to pay the whole membership, but only the days they are really playing.

Dalys
Dalys is the designation for a particular side bet in golf. It received its name because of “John Daly”, a golfer with a powerful drive. For that reason, the “Dalys” bet is basically about the performance of the best drive at each hole. In order to play “Dalys”, it is significant to define before the game, whether the bet is in play, or not and also which money value it has. A further regulation can be, that in order to win the bet, the long drives has to get on the fairway and if no golfer manages it to do so, the bet for this hole is taken over and added to the next hole. The most common synonym for the bet is “Nicklauses”, but other synonyms like “Tigers” or Bubbas are also acquainted.

Dance Floor
Among golfers, the putting green is colloquially also called dance floor.

Dawn Patrol
The dawn patrol are golfers or a whole flight who are usually playing very early in the morning – thus as the name says, if possible at the crack of the dawn. The dawn patrol are the first golf players at the golf course at this day. Another term for dawn patrol is dew sweeper.

Daytona
One golf betting game is called Daytona. Basically there are two golfers at each side. The scores of the two golfers in the team get paired together. So not added, but paired, it means if the team shot for example a 5 and a 6 the result is a 56 and not 11. A general rule is, that the lower score number goes first. Flip the bird can be an additional regulation of Daytona. If one golfer in the team shot a birdie and the other side doesn't, the rule flip the bird implies, that in this case the score is reversed and the higher score stands first. It only needs to be clarified before the game, whether flip the bird will be part of Daytona or not. A synonym for Daytona is Las Vegas.

Dead
When used in golf, the term dead refers to a shot with no possible positive outcome. This term is often used by TV-broadcasters.

Dead Hands
In general, if the hands in a shot stay relatively passive within the hitting area, this behavior is called dead hands. The result of dead hands is a shot with a shorter distance.

Decelerate
To decelerate in golf means to slow down the speed of the clubhead within the hitting area.

Defender
Defender is a special betting game in golf. In the ideal case there are groups of three or four golfers, for each hole, one golfer of the group is the defender. The defender tries to make the lowest score on this hole, whereas the other members of the group try to beat the defender's score. The defender rotates on every hole, so every member of the group is the defender at some point. When the defender won the hole and defended his score, thus he had the lowest score, he earns three points and each of the other members loses one. On the other hand side if his score loses, he automatically loses three points and each of the other members earn one point. In the case of a tie at the lowest score between the defender and another member, the defender earns 1.5 points whereas the other members lose 0.5 points each. The game can be either played with real money value or only for points.

Delayed Hit
A law of physics used in golf is called delayed hit. The sting in there is, that huge amounts of kinetic energy are produced by the golfer. It proceeds as following: The golfer shifts his body in the direction of the target within the forward swing. Furthermore the golf player moves his mass away from the center in order to renew his position. Nowadays the delayed hit has several different terms, for example the conservation of angular momentum, connection, the keystone, lag loading, late hit, but if it is properly performed, it's vernacularly known as good timing.

Demo Day
The so-called demo day is an event, at which the golfers have the chance to play with different golf clubs. Sometimes the golf clubs are from different manufacturers and even with representatives of those manufactures in order to answer questions directly, but most of the time it is a demo day for one individual manufacturer with one representative of this manufacture. Usually the demo day takes place in a pro shop with swing bays or alternatively also at the diving range in order to check out the golf clubs on the course. The demo days are conservatively free to attend.

Deep-faced Driver
If a driver has a greater height on its face, so higher than it's standard, this variation of the driver is called deep-faced driver.

Derby
The derby is a special tournament variation in golf. At the beginning of the round there are 19 golf players. At each hole the worst golfer, so the one with the highest score has to leave. In the end, at the 18th hole, the winner is last one remaining. Another term for derby is shoot out.

Desert Course
A golf course in the midst of the desert is called desert course. The most popular desert courses are the ones in Arizona and Persian Gulf states. Most of the time those golf courses are the only colored spot in the middle of an area out of rocks, cactus and lots of sand. Therefore the desert courses can only flourish because of heavy watering and maintaining treatment.

Desert Swing
As the European Tour takes partly place in the Persian Gulf region, the desert swing is the nickname of this part of the Tour. The tournaments of this part are played in the desert golf courses which are built in the midst of a desert. Presently the three tournaments Abu Dhabi Golf Championship, Qatar Masters and Dubai Desert Classic are part of the desert swing.

Deuce
The deuce is the term, which is used in golf, if a golfer holes out in two strokes.

Devil Ball
In Devil Ball there are groups of four golfers who tee off in a competition. In order to create the team score, there are two scores combined. One of those scores is the one of the devil ball player, because the score gets together from the score of the devil ball and the lowest score of the other three players. Throughout the round, the devil ball rotates among the golf players in the team. Other terms for this variation of golf are money ball, lone ranger, pink ball, yellow ball or pink lady.

Dew Sweeper
If a golfer in a pro tournament has a very early tee time in the third or fourth round, he is called the dew sweeper. The dew sweepers made the cut, but usually they are the closest to the bottom, so generally spoken they are the worst scorers of the better scorers. Meanwhile the term dew sweepers also refers to golfers who like to play very early in the morning, so the first golf players at the golf course. Those players are also called dawn patrol.

Die in the Hole
The term die in the hole expresses, that a putt almost didn't make it in the cup, but somehow made it. So the golf ball barely had enough speed to drop into the hole – it used its last energy to die in the hole.

Dimple Pattern
As manufacturers design their golf balls in different ways, the dimple pattern differences the golf balls of the different manufactures. The pattern is the way the dimples are arranged on the cover of the ball. As the number and the size of the dimples, their arrangement also influences the flight of the golf ball, such as the distance, the spin or the trajectory.

Dimples
The dents at the surface of a golf ball are called dimples. Those dimples affect the flight of a golf ball, like for example the trajectory or the spin of the golf ball. The brands of the golf balls usually differ in their golf ball pattern. Those differences also produce different characteristics of the flight.

Disaster
The disaster is a variation of golf. It is basically a points game – points are awarded to the worst player or team. The winner or winning team in disaster is consequently the one which played worst and therefore gained the most points. Commonly in disaster there is for example one point for each, like for hitting a water ball, hitting in a bunker, playing out of bounds, failing by getting the golf ball out of the bunker or a 3-putt. There are two points awarded for playing the golf ball from one bunker into another. The golfer gets three points in disaster if he plays a 4-putt and four points for playing a whiff. But the point system can be adapted individually, and other variations, like for example erasing all points when a par is made are also common. Another popular name for disaster is trouble.

Divot
If the surface of the turf is damaged after a shot, this scraped up area is called divot. Taking a divot happens to the best golfers, usually by playing with an iron. But there is a difference between the divots. If the divot starts behind the golf ball, and therefore the golf club first strikes the ground and then the ball, the shot is mis-hit. This is also called flat or heavy. But on the other hand side, if the golf club first struck the ball and afterwards the ground and therefore took a divot, it's a good divot. In any case, after the etiquette of golfing it is mandatory to repair the divots in the turf. Therefore, there are different fixing methods for the different golf courses. One is to put the piece of grass back in place, the other one is to fill the divot with a special mixture of sand or sand and seeds. Which method each golf course prefers can be seen at the golf cart, if the cart provides the sand mixture in a carafe, it is the sand method, if not, it's usually only putting the piece of grass back in place.

Divot Tool/Divot Fixer
The divot tool is also known as divot fixer, and it is – in opposite to the name – a tool for fixing the ballmarks, not the divots. If the golf ball landed out of a great height at the putting green, it produces a hollow, a so-called ballmark. Repairing them with a divot tool is very important in order to insure that following golf balls will not be distracted by the ballmarks.

Dog-Balls
Dog-balls is an expression concerning the score. In fact a golfer reached a score of eight strokes at any hole. Dog-balls in golf are more commonly known as the Snowman.

Dogleg
When used in golf, a dogleg is a special kind of a golf hole. A dogleg is not going straight but bends to the right or the left or changes its direction at some point, which again is called corner. If a dogleg turns to the left after the corner it is called “dogleg left”, if it turns to the right, it is called dogleg right. If the change of the direction is only small, it is called slight dogleg, whereas if it changes direction twice it is a double dogleg.

Dog Licence
Until 1971, the dog licence costed seven shillings and six pence (7/6) in the United Kingdom. Therefore, a victory with seven holes in a match play and six holes remaining, so the winner is already clear at hole 12, is called dog licence.

Dog Track
If a golf course is badly groomed, it is vernacularly called dog track. A synonym for that condition is goat track.

Dormant
Dormant is a term that refers to the grass of a golf course. Golfers call the grass dormant, in the winter month, when it gets brown and thereby has a rest within the winter month. One example for dormant grass is bermudagrass, which also changes its colour into brown in the winter month. It is common to overseed the dormant grass within the winter, meaning to let another kind of grass grow over with the effect, that the turf is also green in the cold months.

Dormie
A dormie is an expression within the match play. If one golfer or one team leads the match within the game, so that the opponent could only play a tie even if he would win all remaining holes, this is called a dormie. To express the dormie, golfers say the match has reached or has gone dormie, or the golfer has taken the match dormie.

Dormie House
If there is a building at the golf course where overnight accommodation is provided, this building is called dormie house.

Dots/Dot Game
One variation of playing golf is called dots. Basically, there are some side bets collected in this variation. The specification is, that every group needs to play with their own ball, but instead of that, the group can decide by themselves, which side bets they want to use. Dots means, that the involved golf players mark their scorecards with dots when they have won the side bet on a hole. At the end of the round, the golfers count their dots and settle up. Most commonly used in dots are for example the side bets closest to the pin, long drive or sandies. But in fact the variation of the game is totally up to the golfers.

Double Bogey
If a golfer scored 2-over par on a hole, this is called double bogey. One example for this is to score five strokes on a par-3 hole.

Double Cut
The double cut is an action, where the putting green has been mowed twice a day. In there, at the first mowing it is usually back-to-back, whereas in the second mowing is perpendicular to the first mowing. Through this process the speed of the putting green can be increased. Another meaning of double cut is the division of the field in golf tournaments. Usually the field is cut once in tournaments, but if it's cut twice, this process is called double cut.

Double D
If a golfer first used a driver for the tee shot, and afterwards he uses it on the fairway, this is called double d.

Double Eagle
In case a golf player scored a 3-under par on a golf hole, this is a so-called double eagle. This effect can either occur by scoring a two on a par-5 hole, by scoring a hole-in-one on a par-4 hole or if the golfer only used 3 strokes to hole a par-6 hole out. Logically, a double eagle is not possible on par-3 holes. Double eagles are extremely rare. An Albatross is the synonym for the double eagle, so it designates the same thing.

Double Green
Double Green designates a large green which is for two different holes. Thus in fact it has two different flagsticks, and the holes can be played separately with two groups at the same time. Sometimes there are double greens on parkland courses, but they are often designed in older links courses in Ireland or Great Britain.

Doubles
When there is only one caddie who carries two different sets of clubs, this is called doubles in golf.

Down
When used in golf, down refers to the number of strokes or holes which one golf player is behind his opponent.

Downhill Lie
Downhill lie is the name of the process, where a golf ball rests on a hill and then goes down towards wherever you intend to strike the golf ball.

Downswing
The expression downswing refers to an part of the swing which follows directly on the backswing and ends with the impact of the golf ball. In fact it is the part that goes down within the golf swing. It is also known as forward swing.

Draw
One type of the flight of the golf ball is called draw. If the golfer is right handed, he ball curves from the right to the left within the draw. If he is a left-handed player, he plays the golf ball from the left to the right within the draw. A draw is basically the direct opposite of a fade. But a draw has the same right to left curve of a hook, but it is much more severe and a draw is usually played intentionally whereas a hook is normally not.

Drive
The drive in golf is the first stroke from the teeing ground, which is used for longer holes, so usually for par-4 or par-5 holes. The drive stroke is commonly played with a driver, but it can be played with any golf club, therefore the drive is also often played with a 3-wood.

Driver
The driver is one type of golf club. It is commonly used by lots of golfers, because it is designed to hit the ball farthest. The driver usually has the longest shaft, the farthest clubhead and the least amount of loft. Only putters may sometimes have longer shafts or least amount of loft. In general, the driver is used for tee shots on longer holes like par-4 or par-5 holes. Another meaning of the term driver is when it's used to refer to a golfer, because then the ability of using the golf club is meant.

Driving Iron
A special golf club is called driving iron. It is designed to be used in the place of a driver. A driving iron has generally a larger head with more bulk, more weight and a lower loft than a standard iron. In comparision with the driver, it has a shorter shaft in order to have a better control during the swing. So this aspect of control is the advantage of a driving iron contrary to a driver.

Driving Range
Within the driving range a golfer can practice their golf skills without being directly at the golf course or in a round. Therein he can for example improve his golf swing or his stance and correct mistakes for which he has no time within the round. In general, the driving range consists of an open field and at one end there is a teeing ground. Some driving ranges also provide bunker, chipping, pitching and putting green practice areas. Golfers often hit some golf balls at the driving range to warm up before they start a round. A synonymous expression for the driving range is practice range or range.

Drop
To drop a golf ball basically means to let the ball fall down from an outstretched arm at shoulder height. If a golf ball was shot out of bounds or into a water hazard, this process is done in order to bring a golf ball back into the game.

Dropout Scramble
Dropout Scramble is an expression which refers to a variation of the scramble which is played in golf. In there, the general design is, that there are groups of four players, and in every team all the players first tee off, out of that, the best shot is chosen. Up to there it is the same structure as in the classic version of the scramble. But from there on it distinguishes, because the golf player who shot the selected golf ball has to sit out for the next shot, and only the three other golfers are allowed to shot. There is again the best shot chosen and the golfer who shot has to sit out and only the three other golfers can make the next stoke. The process moves on in this fashion and so does the whole round, until all the cups are holed out. Other terms for this variation are florida scramble, step aside, stand aside, mexican standoff or stand out.

Duck Hook
At the duck hook, a right handed golfer managed to immediately bring the golf ball curving from the right to the left and afterwards he dips to the ground running to the hook side of the golf player. For a left-handed golfer the process is the same, but obviously back-to-front. Thus summarizing, the duck hook is a severe hook shot and another name for the duck hook is snap hook.

Duff
The duff is a golf shot, which is basically mis-hit, to be clear about it, it is the expression for a terrible shot.

Duffer
The term duffer can be either used for players who are in general mediocre or even poor golfers. It is a vernacular expression but usually not derogatory – only if it is used for golfers who are absolutely no duffers, like golf pros or low-handicappers. Duffer is a less derogatory term than hacker, but basically they have the same meaning.

Dunk
When used in golf, dunk is a term that refers to a golf ball which landed in a water hazard.

Dynamic Balance
The dynamic balance in a golf swing is the expression for the process if a golfers transfers his weight during the swing but at the same time maintains the body control.

E

Eagle
An Eagle is the term for scoring 2-under par on an hole. Thus for example scoring a hole in one at a par-3 hole, scoring with two at a par-4 hole or scoring a three on a par-5 hole. Eagles are most often scored on par-5 holes, but rarer on par-4 holes, whereas they are super rare on par-6 holes.

Early Hit
The term early hit in golf refers to a downswing, in which the golf player prematurely unlocks his wrists. Therefore the golfer loses power and control within his swing. Additional synonyms are casting from the top or hitting from the top.

Eclectic
Eclectic is a special variation of the golf tournament. In there, the golf players play several rounds and only the lowest result on each hole is recorded, in this strategy an 18-hole round is produced.

Effective Loft
The effective loft is a loft on a golf club at its impact. This loft is not the one which is built into the golf club. Additionally it is a loft which is for example affected by the position of the hands in relation to the golf ball.

Effective Playing Length/EPL
The effective playing length is the length of the golf course which is measured with consideration of factors like if its going uphill, downhill or flat or also other factors like for example the weather. If a golf course is for instance designed to go more downhill than uphill, its effective playing length will be shorter because the golf ball can roll longer and therefore he has more distance on his shots.

Elevated Green
In case the green is higher than its surrounding area, golfers call it elevated green. This in this green the sides of the green slope upward. Another meaning of elevated green can also be, that the green is higher than the teeing ground, but using the term in this regard is only usual on par-3 holes. An elevated green can also be a green which is higher than the elevation of the fairway.

Eliminator
One variation of playing golf is the eliminator. It is basically a golf tournament for 4-person teams. In there, one golfers score is used as team score for one hole (obviously the lowest score, like in best ball), but the golfer whose score was taken is “eliminated” for the following holes, until all players scores had been the team score once. After the last score was used of the last golf player who was eligible, all scores count again and the process starts over again. The teams can make individual specifications on the rules. The eliminator is also known as in the bucket.

Embedded Ball
If a golf ball stuck in the ground as a consequence of its impact, among golfers this is called an embedded ball.

English
English is a betting game in golf. In there, groups with three people play, and on each hole there are six points. Each of the three team members can reach a low, middle or high score at each hole. The golfer with the lowest score gains four points, the middle score earns two points whereas the high score doesn't get any points. In case two golf players tie at the low score, each of them gets three points and the third golfer doesn't get anything. If all three members tie, every of them gets either zero or two points. Those points can carry a monetary value or only points and bragging rights, but that can be clarified before the round starts. Other names for English are Split Sixes, 6-Point Game or Cricket.

Equitable Stroke Control
The Equitable Stroke Control is one factor of the USGA Handicap System. In general, if a golf player is usually very consistent in golfing, but has one hole which he messes up all the time, the ESC minimizes the influence of those slip-ups in the handicap index. The ESC only applies to golf players who actually use the USGA Handicap.

Etiquette
The etiquette of golfing is are guidelines which refer to the proper behaviour on the golf course. In there, golfers find for example guidelines concerning the clothing or the behaviour towards other golf players. The Etiquette is not the same thing as the golf rules, but in fact both is about a fair and fluent game. Additionally the Etiquette and the golf rules, both, are passed by the R&A and the USGA.

European Tour
The European Tour in golf is a professional golf tour. As those two are the leading professional golf tours, it is approximately at the same level as the PGA Tour. As the name says, the European Tour takes mostly place in Europe.

Even/Even Par
When used in golf, even or even par means, that a golfer played the same score, that an expert golfer would need for the hole or the entire round. The score is accordingly equal to par.

Event qualifiers
Event qualifiers is tournament format, which is usually played prior to every pro tour event. The victory are the places of the tour event and this manifests its great importance as qualification for a tournament license. The format is basically structured as a round of 18 holes in a stroke play format, because the subsequent tour is usually played in match play fashion. As the qualifying takes place on the Monday in the tournament week, a common name is also Monday qualifying. Furthermore the format is known as Open qualifiers.

Everything but Putts
One game variation in golf is called Everything but Putts. There is the possibility of playing it as tournament format or in a group of golfers. The basic format of Everything but Putts is, that no putt counts, meaning only strokes which aren't at the putting area count to the final score. The total score without putts is determined by noting the putts for each hole during the game and in the end subtracting the putts from the whole score in order to separate the Everything but Putts score. After this procedure, the winner is the golfer with the lowest stroke score. Everything but Putts is more commonly also known as No Putts.

Executive Course
An executive course is one, which is shorter than a regular course, it has mostly par-3, but also some par-4 and par-5 holes and can be entirely scored with a lower number of strokes than the regular par 72. The executive courses are often courses with nine holes in length. It is not a par-3 course, but the terms are sometimes mixed. The executive courses are built for golfers who have not a lot of time and therefore can play quickly. The nine-hole version of this golf course is commonly also known as Executive nine.

Explosion
If a golfer strokes the golf ball out of the bunker and thereby a lot of sand accompanies the ball, this shot is called explosion because it reminds of one.

F

Face
When used in golf, face refers to a special part of the golf club. In fact it is the part at the clubhead which has the direct contact with the golf ball at the impact. The term face is the short form of clubface. Another meaning of face refers to one component of bunkers, which is a steeper and vertical wall consisting of sand, grass or sod.

Face Angle
The position of the clubface relatively seen to the target line is called face angle. This is measured in degrees and usually the specifications of the golf clubs of different manufacturers can be seen at their website. As the face angle can have different degrees, there are some distinctions concerning the clubface. If the face angle for example is aligned at the target line, this is called square. In case a right-handed player plays, the clubface can also be aligned to the right of the target – for left-handed golfers it is the other way round, this is called open face angle. The direct opposite to that is a closed one, so for right-handed players the clubface is aligned to the left of the target, for left-handed golfers it is aligned to the right in this angle position. A closed clubface can correct slices, but usually golfers with square face angles can rotate the shaft at the address and thereby they produce an either opened or closed face angle. However to summarize golfers can usually play every hole with a square clubface, but especially for lower-handicap golfers who might often produce a slice, an slightly open or closed face angle can support their game and help correcting mis-hits.

Face-Balanced Putter
In case a putter is face-balanced, the clubface will be flat, will point to the skyward and run parallel to the ground whenever he needs to balance across the index fingers of an golfer. Those putters are face-balanced and have clubhead properties like opening less on the backstroke and closing less on the through-stroke within the putting. Therefore those putters are especially useful for golfers with a straight-back-and-through putting stroke.

Facing
Facing is an expression referring to one part of some bunker designs. A grassy slope out of a bunker in the direction of the putting green is the facing, because it faces the golf player to play out of the bunker in the direction or directly onto the green. This facing is usually sloped upward a couple feet, but it can also incline up to daunting heights. As the terms face of a bunker and facing of it have different meanings, they can not be used substitutable.

Fade
The Fade is a special trajectory of the golf ball. In there, the ball moves to the left of the target and afterwards it moves to the right of it after the impact. All this refers to a right-handed golfer, the directions change reversely for the left-handed golf players. The ball flight looks like the one of a slice, but a slice is more severe within the movement. Another difference between the slice and the fade is, that the fade is usually played intentionally, whereas the slice isn't. A common expression for the fade is cut or cut shot.

Fairway
The so-called fairway is a precisely mown area which makes its way from the tee box to the putting green of a cup, usually every golfer targets to get the golf ball there after teeing off. Within the rules of golf there is no definition of the fairway, but the greenkeepers made one. In that definition is regulated, that a fairway can be 33 until 60 yards wide and is mowed between 0.5 and 1.25 inches, that height depends for instance on factors like the grass species, the local weather or the soil conditions.

Fairway Bunker
A fairway bunker is a bunker, thus usually a sand hazard, which is located within the fairway. Sometimes it is not directly in, but neighboring to the fairway.

Fairway Hit
Within a fairway hit, any component of the golf ball is touching the fairway surface. But a fairway hit is only considered as such, if the shot has been made on a par 4 or 5. Generally the percentage of those fairway hits is one of the statistics which is preserved by the PGA Tour.

Fairway Markers
Fairway markers are special markers giving the distance from the individual marker to center of the green. Sometimes those markers directly show the yardage, but usually they are colored and every color has its meaning. One coding could for instance be, that yellow means 250 yards, blue gives a 200 yardage, white a 150 yards, whereas the red marker shows the distance of 100 yards. As there is no clear specification about those colors, the meaning of the individual colors can vary on every golf course.

Fairway Wood
Woods with higher numbers are known as fairway woods. Those golf clubs are used for shots from off the fairway where still long distances are required. The main characteristics of the fairway wood is on the one hand side that they have a higher loft, on the other hand side they have a shallower face height. Because of those features it is easier to hit fairway woods off the ground than deep-faced drivers. The fairway woods are also recognizable because of there slightly shorter and stiffer shaft, a smaller clubhead and more loft than a driver or a 2-wood.

Fairways & Greens/F&G
One variation of a betting game in golf is called fairways & greens or F&G. It is advantageous to play the game with golf players of similar handicaps. The target is to be either the only golfer hitting the fairway off the tee, or the only one hitting the green in regulation. If the golfer is the only one who reached one of those objectives, he won the bet. If more golf players managed to get on the fairway or the green, the bet is carried over to the next hole. If F&G is played for points, the golfer with the highest points earned through the round, wins the overall bet.

False Front
The false front is an expression for a special design of putting greens. It is basically a front part of a green which slopes toward the fairway. In case the golf ball hits the false front it'll roll backwards into the fairway. As the ball should remain on the green, the golf player tries to carry his golf ball beyond the front of this putting green.

Fan
The term fan refers to a golf swing, within which the golf player totally misses the ball. Whether the golfer wants to count the embarrassing mis-hit in the score or not is the golf players decision. A synonym for that is whiff.

Fanning
Fanning is the expression for a position of the clubface. In fact, in fanning the clubface is exaggerated open when the backswing begins.

Fat/Fat Shot
If a golfer hits the golf club in the ground prior of the contact with the golf ball and entails a layer of turf or sod which comes between the club face and the ball. The golf ball bounces only a few centimeters for that reason. This is obviously a mis-hit and among golfers it is known as fat or fat shot. Besides, the result of the fat shot is a divot – the fatter the shot has been, the deeper is the divot. The fat shot is for instance also known as heavy shot, chunk shot or chili dip, whereas the opposite is the thin shot.

Favorite Holes
Favorite Holes is the designation for a side betting game which is commonly played among golfers during the round. Before the round, each golf player who takes part in the betting game puts an agreed-upon amount into a pot. Afterwards – but also before the start of the round, each golf player circles his three favorite holes within the game, where he thinks he'll score best. The considered scoring is in relation to par. In the end, the best score wins the Favorite Holes. This game variation is also known as Best Holes.

Featherie/Feathery
Featherie or Feathery is the name of former golf balls. The golf balls basically had a leather surface and were stuffed with chicken or goose feathers. Furthermore they were usually hand-sewn and white colored. Producing a featherie was a protacted, time-consuming process, for that reason they were very expensive. Additionally the flight characteristics of the ball were irregularly, when it became wet its distance was also reduced and it could split open upon the impact or a hard hit on the ground. In fact, even if the featherie had those disadvantages it was an improvement over the golf balls golfers used before – wooden balls.

Feel
The feeling for the golf ball is designated as feel or touch. In order to reach a low score, it is extremely important, that the golf player has a high feeling for the golf ball and also for his strokes, especially within the putting process.

Ferret
Ferret is the term for holing a cup from outside the green. The result is par or better, and in some variations, the holing with a putter can be excluded.

Ferrule
The ferrule is one part of most of the golf irons and some woods. The ferrule is only a cosmetic part at the golf club. It is in fact a plastic cover, which covers the point where the shaft enters the hosel. As it has no influencing function, in case the ferrule is loose, it can usually be simply glued. If the ferrule is loose and at the same time also the clubhead, it is generally required to go to any club repair shop.

Fescue
Fescue is a special species of grass, which is often used on links courses. Characteristics of the fescue are, that it is a sturdy grass, which on the one hand side turns golden and on the other hand side it can grow up to three feet high. The fescue grass is sometimes used for the rough or beyond, but it can also be mowed low, and used as fairway grass, teeing ground or also as putting green. The Chambers Bay and the Whistling Straits golf courses are popular examples using the fescue. At the chambers bay golf course all the turf, meaning the rough, fairways, teeing grounds and putting greens consist of fescue.

Field
All players in one tournament are designated as field.

Finish (Position)
When used in golf, finish or finish position refers to the ending stance a golfer takes after the swing. A final battle within a match play is also named finish.

Finishing Hole
The meaning of the term finishing hole can on the one hand side refer to the last hole on a golf course, so usually hole No. 18, sometimes, at a 9-hole course, it's hole No. 9. On the other hand side it can also refer to the finishing hole which completes the play of a golfer's round. That means for example at a shotgun start, the finishing hole for each group is another one, because each group starts at another hole, so for example if one group tees off at hole 10 and plays an 18-hole round, their finishing hole is hole No. 9.

First Cut
The first cut is a term used for grass which is mown higher than the fairway grass, but not as high as the primary rough. For that reason it is usually easier to play shots from the first cut than from the primary rough.

Fish
One betting game in golf is the so-called fish. It is played in groups and there are three separate bets within the game. On the one hand side there is the bet on the golfer who strokes the first birdie. Then there is the bet on who makes the longest birdie putt and on the golfer who makes the most birdies. There is usually a dollar amount for each bet, but in general it is the same for all three bets. Whether eagles are also worth something or how high the agreed-upon amount is, is up to the group and needs to be clarified before the start of the game, as same as other individual specifications.

Fishies/Fishy
Fishies is generally a side bet which can be played with a group of golfers no matter how large the group is. The objective of the betting game in order to win is, to make par on a hole, despite he has hit into a water hazard. Before the start of the round the group has to clarify which value the fishie has and whether they play their round with the side bet. For winning the side bet, it is additionally absolutely important, that the golf ball was totally in the water of the water hazard. Other names for the fishie are splashies, fishy, fishes or fish.

Five of Clubs
Five of Clubs is a golf tournament format, in which the golfers are only allowed to use five golf clubs in the round. There are different variations of the specifications, one of them is, that the putter doesn't count to the five golf clubs, so it's five clubs plus one putter. Another one is, that the putter counts to the five clubs, so it's definitely one five golf clubs. Sometimes the name is also spelled 5 of Clubs.

Flags/Flag Competition
Within this variation of golf, every golfer who plays, carries a little flag. Before the round, the golf players earn a certain number of strokes, in the round, when their strokes run out, the golf players have to stick the flag in the ground from which their final shot is played. The player who played the farthest won the competition. In general, it can be played using full handicaps or also only partial ones. When the full handicap is used, there are often golf players finishing the round but still have strokes left. In this case the round can either keep going from hole 1 on again, or it can stop after the 18th hole and the golf player who has the most strokes remaining is the winner. The game variation is also known as Tombstone or Last Man Standing.

Flagstick
The flagstick marks the location of the cup, thus it is situated at the putting green and in fact it's the final goal of every tee off area. As it consists of a stick with a flag on it, the flagstick is easy to recognize. There are some variations of denoting, whether the cup is near the front, back or center of the green. One of them is for example to color code the flags, another one is to put the flag either high, low or middle on the stick. The etiquette of golfing designates, that the golfers should serve the flag-stick for other players in order to create a nice atmosphere of togetherness. A synonym for the flagstick is pin and sometimes it is abbreviated with flag.

Flange
As putters most commonly include a flange, the expression is associated with putters. It is the component of the clubhead, which basically lies on the sole. Formerly, the flange was designed to make a weightier clubhead. Meanwhile it is proved, that the flanges also increase the moment of inertia and the perimeter weighting, so that the putter forgives mistakes within the strokes.

Flare
A flare is a shot that goes severely to the right side. Within that shot, a golf ball began the trajectory at the right side of the target line and in the flight the ball goes more and more to the right side. When the golf ball finally reached the cup, it can't hole in, because it is to far on the right side. This effect is also called block or push.

Flat Swing
The flat swing is the designation of a golf swing, which is untypically less vertically, but more horizontally played.

Flatstick
The vernacular term for a putter is flatstick. It has its origin therein, that the clubfaces of the putters are usually flat or vertical. But in reality most putters are not flat, and oppositely they usually have a loft of three or four degrees. Sometimes the spelling is also flat stick.

Flex/Shaft Flex
The stiffness of a golf club shaft is called flexladies and marked with L, followed by so-called allround or senior shafts, marked with an A. The mark R designates regular shafts, S is for stiff shafts and the shafts with the greatest flex are extra stiff and marked with an X. Players with fast swing generally use a shaft with less flex, whereas oppositely golfers with a slower swing need a shaft with a greater flex.

Flexpoint
The flex point is part of the golf club. It's the point at the shaft, where the golf club can bend himself the most. This influences the flight characteristics enormously, if the flex point is nearer to the clubhead, the ball flies higher, in case the flex point is further away from the clubhead, the golf ball flies flatter. But usually the decision about a good or bad game is not about the flex point. Golfers can individually decide about a specific flex point for their golf clubs, but an analysis of the swing before that is recommended. Synonyms for the flex point are bend point or kickpoint.

Flier/Flyer
Flier is the term for a shot, which flies longer than intended. Most commonly the flier is a shot from the rough or out of a special lie, like in wet conditions. Additionally, the flier has no spin or only a little bit of it. As a result of the shot, the golfer overshoot his target. The flier lie is the lie of the golf ball in the rough or in wet conditions. Synonyms for the flierflyer or the jumper.

Flight
Basically, flight is the expression that refers to the division of the golf players within a gross stroke-play tournament. It is generally regulated, that golfers who are together in a flight usually have similar skills, which are determined by similar handicaps. As it is counted in gross, this is important, because otherwise a lower-handicap golfer would never have a chance to win. Every flight has a name which indicates their level, for example the best flight is usually called championship flight, and other flights are also titled in order to describe their abilities. Most commonly there is also one winner crowned within every flight after the tournament.

Flip Shot
The flip shot refers to a special kind of golf shot. It is usually performed with a wedge. It is generally combined with a wrist swing and created in order to hit the golf ball with a great height but at the same time a short distance.

Flip the Bird
If golfers play the so-called Daytona or Las Vegas betting game, an additional regulation of the game can be flip the bird. In the betting game, the general rule is, that the team score is a pairing out of the two individual scores of a team, but the lower number always stands at first place. Thus a score of 2 and 3 builds a team score of 23 and not 32. Flip the bird is an agreed-upon adaption of the rule, because in there, it is specified, that if a golfer shot a bird, the score is reversed. The result is then, that the higher score stands first and not the birdie score. But in fact it is important to define prior the game, whether flip the bird is used or not.

Flop/Flop Shot
Flop shot is the designation of a pitch shot which is generally shorter played. For that shot golfers usually use a high-lofted wedge for creating the maximum height within the ball flight. The ideal result should be a trajectory with great height but a quick landing and stopping on the green. This shot is for instance performed, if there is one more hazard until the golf ball reaches the flagstick. The flop shot is most commonly played with a so-called lob wedge, which is highly-lofted, or other wedges. As a result, the flop shot is also known as lob shot or lob. Additionally it is also known as flip shot.

Florida Scramble
The so-called florida scramble in golf is a variation of the scramble. The general structure is, that there are four golf players in each team, all golfers first tee off, then the best shot is chosen. At the following point, the florida scramble differentiates itself from the traditional scramble: The golfer whose golf ball is chosen is not allowed to play the next stroke, only the other three golf players in his group are allowed to play from the point his golf ball lies. Afterwards the best of those three second shots is selected and the golf player whose shot was chosen is not allowed to move forward for the next shot. This process is repeated until the golf ball is holed out and the play continues in this fashion, until all the holes of the round are holed. So basically at teeing off, all four golfers are allowed to play, and afterwards at each shot there are always only three golfers permitted to play. Common synonyms for this variation are dropout scramble, step aside, stand aside, mexican standoff or tand out.

Fluffy/Fluffy Lie
Within the fluffy lie a golf ball sits on top of long grass. This is an undesired position, because it is difficult to shot the golf ball out of the location and stroke the ball in a better lie, not in an even worse one.

Flush
If golf players intend to make a perfect impact between clubface and golf ball within the golf swing, this is called flush. To catch the flush is a very desired kind of the impact.

Fly
Fly is the term which is used in golf in order to express the distance a golf ball carries or also a which distance a shot performs over an intended target.

Flyer/Flyer Lie
The flyer is a shot, most commonly an approach shot, which flies for a longer distance than the golfer initially wanted. The result of the flyer is usually, that the golf player overshoots his objective. No matter what type of lie the flyer produces, the flyer lie is the name of it. Usually the flyer lie is a lie within the rough, and normally it designates golf balls which sit up on top of the rough, because the flyer lie of sitting down is not very common nowadays. The correct spelling of the flyer is flier, but golfers more commonly use the term flyer, written with an y for cosmetic reasons.

Follow Through
The expression for the final component of the golf swing is follow through. In fact, the follow through is the completion of the swing after the golf ball has already been struck.

Footgolf
Footgolf is a new created mixture of golf and soccer. It began in the early 2000s in the Netherlands and Footgolf is performed with a soccer ball but in combination with the rules of golf. Every stroke is made by kicking with the feet, thus without golf clubs, but at a real golf course and also with the dress code of the golfers. The specification is, that the golf course has 21-inch holes, so that it can be holed out with the large soccer balls instead of golf balls. Since 2012 the governing organization of Footgolf is also the Federation for International Footgolf (FIFG). Usually a round of Footgolf is played a lot faster, then one of traditional golf, because some time-demanding factors, like for example the club selection or lost balls, are not at all or fewer given in Footgolf than in go.

Footprinting
In case there is frost on the ground of the golf course, golf players are not anymore allowed to go onto the course. That is for the reason, that the grass can be killed by stepping on it when it is frozen. The footprints leave a trail of dead brown grass behind. As the golfers prefer a green, vivid golf course, the golf club forbids walking at the golf course when the turf is frozen for that reason.

Footwork
Footwork is the designation for the golfer's coordination of his feet and his entire lower body during the swing.

Foot Wedge
When used in golf, the term foot wedge means, that a golfer used his foot in order to improve the position of his golf ball. Under the rules of golf this is an illegal procedure, but as the foot is used like a golf club, the term foot wedge resulted.

Forced Carry
If the golfer shot the golf ball in a position, from where he needs to hit the ball over any hazard at the golf course in order to bring the ball to the green. As he is forced to carry a hazard for advancing his golf ball, this procedure is named forced carry.

Fore
Fore! is a alarm shout in golf. A golfer who hit a shot which is in danger to hit another player has to shout “fore!” as loud as he can in order to warn endangered golf players. It is about the good etiquette to warn the others and thereby try to prevent injury. Whenever a golfer hears that alarm he immediately needs to protect his head and duck himself. It is recommended to act quickly and especially without looking around where the shout came from, because exactly this behavior is the dangerous fact and serious injuries can result out of that.

Forecaddie
One specialized type of a caddie is a so-called forecaddie. In fact, it is a person, which other than a traditional caddie does not carry the golf bag, additionally he also isn't the caddie of only one person, he is the caddie of a group of golfers. His task is to accompany the group and keep them moving, in order to do that and ensure a fluent game, he tracks all the golf balls. Thus in case one golf player hits the golf ball in the rough, it is the forecaddies job to search the ball so that the play can continue without any time delay. Forecaddies are commonly only at resorts or luxury country clubs, and usually only chartered by golf players who play in tournaments.

Forged
The term forged in golf refers to the clubhead. It basically means, that the clubhead is forged, thus made, out of one piece of light metal or alloy. It is believed, that the forged club allows the golf player to have more feeling during the strike.

Forgiveness
Forgiveness is the expression for the design and construction of golf clubs, which reduce the effect of mistakes the golfer makes. Those mistakes can either have their origin in poor swings, or in a bad impact. Golf clubs with more forgiveness have for example recognizable design features like greater clubheads, larger clubfaces, cavity backs, thicker toplines or a high moment of inertia. With those or other factors, the forgiveness can for instance make slices less severe or helps getting the golf ball higher in the air. Thus in fact it makes little corrections in poor shots of the golf players and therefore improves their golf swing, but it can not make bad shots go away completely.

Forgiving
In case a golf club is forgiving, he evince design features, with which poor impacts or mistaken golf swings of the golfer are reduced. Forgiving is the adjective for the belonging noun forgiveness.

Fort Lauderdale
Fort Lauderdale is a play variation of golf. In there, two teams with two or four players in each play against each other. At first every golfer in a team tees off and the best ball is selected out of the results. Afterwards every golf player in that team will play the next shot from this best ball position. After the second shot the best ball is again chosen by the team and again everyone moves forward from the location of the best ball. This procedure is continued until the ball is holed out, and repeated in the whole round. The variation is also known as Scramble.

Forward Press
The forward press is a small motion in arms, hands and sometimes also in the legs. Within this movement the golf swing starts.

Forward Swing
When used in golf, the term forward swing is the opposite of the backswing. Thus it is the downward movement of the hands and arms and of course the club, because the hands hold it. The period from top of the backswing until the direct contact with the golf ball is the forward swing. A synonym for this term is downswing.

Fourball
Fourball is a variation of golf. The main design is, that there are two teams with two golf players in each, so in total there are four golfers with four golf balls, hence the name. Every golf player plays with his own golf ball and in every team the better result at every hole counts, the worse expires. The play can be performed as match play or as stroke play and before the game the teams can agree on more individual features.

Fourball Alliance
The tournament format fourball alliance is a golf variation in which teams with four golfers in each play against each other. Before the game a number of team scores is determined. Every member hits his own golf ball and then the predetermined number of the best scores is combined and builds the team score. Usually fourball alliance is played with Stableford scoring, but it can also be played as stroke play. This play is also known as Irish Four Ball, bowmaker or money ball.

Four-Man Cha Cha Cha
Within the golf tournament Four-Man Cha Cha Cha, the four members of a team play their own golf balls consistently. At the first hole, the best ball counts as team score, this is the first cha. The two best balls count at the second hole as team score, known as cha cha. At the third hole, the three best balls are combined for the team score, this is called cha cha cha. Hence the name Four-Man Cha Cha Cha. All three holes the scores rotate, so for example at the hole No. 4, it is treated as the first hole, so again the best score counts. The round is played throughout in this fashion.

Four-point Game
The four-point game is a variation of playing golf. The basic structure is a game with four golfers in total, so in fact, two golf players play in each team. Additionally, there are four points per hole distributed in a special way. One point earns the team with the lowest score, one point is for the lowest high score of each side and the lowest score of each side is considered with two points. In case the golfers played a tie, no points are distributed at all. Whereas a birdie as low individual score is considered with four points instead of only two. In the end, the team with the most points wins. The golf players can agree on playing for money in advance, so in the end the winner gets the agreed-upon amount.

Foursome
A special kind of match in golf is the so-called foursome. Basically, there are two golfers in each team who play alternately with the same golf ball. The golf players usually decide in advance, who tees off first and then they hit by turns. The foursome is regularly played as match play, but sometimes it is also performed within a stroke play. Another terms for the foursome are “scotch doubles” or alternate shot. Additionally, the expression foursome is also a designation for a group of four golfers who play together in one team on the golf course, no matter which format they play.

Free drop
Free drop is an expression for dropping the golf ball without any penalty. This process is allowed by the rules of golf in some situations. Some golfers also use the synonym free relief.

Frenchy
One type of impressive shot in golf is called frenchy. Within this shot, the golf ball hits a tree, but anyways it made it onto the fairway.

Frequency Matching
When used in golf, the term frequency matching refers to the golf shafts. In fact, it has great importance, because a clubfitter can ensure a consistent progression within the vibration frequency of shafts in a set of clubs. This vibration frequency relates to the stiffness of the shaft and the frequency matching basically means, that the vibration frequency within a set of golf clubs increases consistently, but not, that it is identical at each shaft. In general, the vibration frequency of shorter shafts is higher than the one of longer shafts.

Fried Egg/Fried Egg Lie
In case a golf ball is plugged or buried into a sand bunker, the terms fried egg or fried egg lie describe that situation. The expression has its origin therein, that whenever a ball is partly covered by the sand in the bunker, and only the top is visibly, it looks like the yolk of a fried egg. Sometimes the expressions buried or plugged are also used for the fried egg.

Fringe
The grass adjacent to the green with a slightly higher mowed turf is than the grass on the putting green is called fringe. It basically separates the putting green from the rough or the fairway. Synonyms for this area are apron, which is most commonly used, and frog hair or collar.

Frog Hair
The expression frog hair is an vernacular term for apron. It is generally the turf which surrounds the putting green. Additionally the frog hair is identifiable because its grass is a little bit higher mowed than the one on the putting green. Apart from apron, the area is also known as fringe or collar.

Front Nine
The holes No. 1 through No. 9 or the first nine holes a golfer plays in a 18-hole golf round are known as “front nine”. Another expression for the term is front side, whereas the opposite of the holes are the back nine.

Front Side
The expression front side in golf refers to the holes one through nine within an 18-hole golf course. It is a synonym for front nine and therefore also the opposite of the back nine. But the term front side is actually only the term for those holes, and is not adaptable to where the golfer starts its round, like the expression front nine is.

Full Finger Grip
The method of holding the the golf club with all ten fingers, but without interlocking or overlapping is called “full finger grip”. With this kind of gripping, the shot can be performed imprecisely. The kind of gripping is also called baseball grip or ten finger grip.

Funnies
Funnies in golf is used to delineate achievements during the play. The achievements can either be positive or negative, but usually they are more informal and therefore differentiate themselves from traditional achievements, which are for instance birdies or eagles. As funnies in general enable golfers to win something, which doesn't depend on the score of the match, they are mainly practiced in order to add the interest into match play games.

G

Gallery
In golf, the spectators at a golf tournament or a golf match are called gallery.

Gap Wedge
A special golf club is called gap wedge. Characteristic for the gap wedge is, that it has a high loft and therefore it provides more precision and multiplicity and usually it is used in order to play short shots into the putting green. With regard to the loft this golf club closes the gap between the pitching wedge and the sand wedge. The gap wedge is also known as attack wedge, approach wedge or a-wedge.

Garbage
A variation of betting game within golf is known as garbage. The speciality about this is, that there are more achievements combined in this variation. At first the golfers agree on which side bets they are tracking. That can for example mean hole in one, eagle, birdie or chip-in. Within the game, every golfer plays the round and marks in the scorecard which of the chosen side bets he fulfilled where. At the end of the round, all golf players count their points and cash up. Synonyms for Garbage are Trash, Junk or Dots/ Dot Game.

GCAA
The Golf Coaches Association of America, shortened GCAA, is a non-profit organization in the USA. In general, the association is professionally focused on men's collegiate golf coaches. It presents for example some awards, like the “Jack Nicklaus Award” or the Ben Hogan Award. The GCAA was founded 1958 and has meanwhile over 750 members.

GCSAA
GCSAA is the abbreviation for Golf Course Superintendents Association of America. It is a golf organization with the objective of improving the golf course management and representing the interests of greenkeepers. The focus is to create a network and sharing the experiences in order to improve the maintenance of the golf courses. The British equivalent is abbreviated with BIGGA.

Gentlemen Only, Ladies Forbidden
One concept about the origin of the word golf is, that it is an abbreviation for gentlemen only, ladies forbidden. As in earlier times playing golf was dominated by men, this myth continues to this day. It is proven, that this is not the real origin of the word golf. In fact, scientists believe that it crystallized out of a mixture of older dialects and languages. In the specific case it should be out of a medieval dutch word kolf or kolve, which had the meaning of today's club. And this could have been combined with a Scots dialect so that golve, gowl or simply golf resulted. Sources prove, that by the 16th century the word golf was manifested.

Get Down
When used in golf, the expression get down is used for describing that the golf ball is putted into the cup.

Get Legs
Golf players directly address their golf ball with saying get legs and thereby they kind of cheer the ball, so that it rolls into the hole, because they fear it might not hole out.

GHIN
GHIN is the short form for Golf Handicap and Information Network. Basically this is a handicapping service, similar to a social media network, with which the golf clubs and golf players can post and see information in an electronic way. This is a service of the USGA.

Gilligan
The Gilligan is the opposite of a Mulligan. If it is agreed to play gilligans in a match, every golfer can ask its opponent whether he's allowed to play a shot again without rating.

Gimmie/Gimme
The gimmie basically is a donated, but nevertheless rated putt. It is usually a putt, which is that short, that is nearly can not miss the hole any more, because it is so close to the hole. Within the gimmie, the golfer does not have to play the putt, because it then already counts as holed out. In order to speed up, the donated putt is officially often used within a match play and also used in private golf rounds. In golf tournaments, with which the golfers can improve their handicap, and under the rules of golf, donating a gimmie is forbidden. Both spellings, so gimme and gimmie are accepted, and the origin of the word is probably a shortening of give me.

Go to School
Go to school is the term for learning from another golfer's shot, or rather his putt, in order to evaluate the putting green and draw a conclusion out of that.

Goat Track
The expression goat track refers to a golf course in poor condition, thus a lowly groomed one. As its synonym “dog track”, those are vernacular terms.

Golden Ferret
The golden ferret describes the holing of a golf ball directly from a bunker. It is one very common type of a funny.

Goldie Bounce
If a golfer shot his golf ball into a tree in the rough, but it bounces out onto the fairway, even though, this process is called goldie bounce.

Golf Association
The golf association is an organization whose function it is to run events and promote golf within a region. The golf association is recognized by the R&A.

Golf Buggy
The device for the transport of a golf player's bag of clubs is called golf buggy. There are different designs of the golf buggy, it can for instance be a passenger car, which is gas- or electronic-powered and it also transports the golfer and with this vehicle the player is allowed to drive on a special way over the golf course. Other variations of the golf buggy are for example the walking cart or the push cart. The buggies are usual for rental at the golf course, but the name “golf buggy” is only common in Europe and Australia, in the other parts of the world it is usually called push cart.

Golf Car
The golf car is a version of the golf buggy. In this gas- or electronic-powered and driven by the golfer. It is used in order to transport the golf player and his golf bag over the golf course. Usually the vehicle is designed to carry two golfers and their bags. The golf bags are secured in the back of the golf car. Golf cart and golf buggy are synonyms for the golf car, but the term golf car is understandably at the entire world. The golf courses usually keep a fleet of golf cars for rentals – usually for an extra fee, but sometimes also included within the green fee.

Golf Cart
In North Africa the expression golf cart refers to the transport vehicles at a golf course. In other parts of the world this is commonly known as golf cart or golf buggy. Usually the term refers to gas- or electrical-powered vehicle, but it can also be one for walking or pushing, which only transports the golf bags. Most commonly the golf courses provide a fleet of golf carts for rentals, they are usually charged for an extra fee, but the rent for the golf carts is sometimes included in the green fee.

Golf Club
In general, golf club has three different meanings. The golf club as equipment, thus as tool to play golf is probably the most common usage of the term. Additionally golf club also refers to a golf course or special golf facility. If a golf course for instance has the term golf club included in its name, it's usually an indicator, that the green fee will be higher. The third common meaning of the expression golf club is, that it designates a group or association of golfers, such as the USGA and the R&A golf associations.

Golf Club without Real Estate
The official specification in order to get an USGA Handicap index is usually, that the golf player has to be part of a golf club. As this is not convenient for all golfers, the USGA invented a new concept named golf club without real estate. In fact, the concept is to have a golf club without home course. There has to be at minimum 10 members and it has to include a handicap committee and in general the whole members has to keep the statutes of the USGA Handicapping System.

Golf Course
Usually, golf courses are classified in different groups. They are differentiated by factors as their design, the geographical construction and architectonical elements. Usually the design and construction of a golf course are usually similar if the natural environment is similar. Thus basically there are three famous groups in which the golf courses are most commonly differentiated: So-called links courses are the original golf courses, because playing golf was invented at links courses in Scotland. Usually they are built along a sandy coast with mainly coast grass and nearly no trees. The result is, that the green is usually big and slowly, whereas the fairways are most commonly hard and fast. The course is furthermore open for wind, but its maintaining is most of the time simple, because it is soaked by rain. Additionally there are usually big, deep bunkers within links golf courses.
The parkland course receives its name because of the design which is similar to a park. Therefore it is characteristically, that the golf course has deeply green fairways, fast putting greens and usually also a lot of trees. A lot of golf courses at the european tour are parkland courses.
Desert courses are, as the name says, situated in the desert. Thus they are most commonly the only green area within their environment. Generally the desert courses are situated in oil rich Emirates or the American Southwest.
Even if those are clear variations of golf courses, it is usually not possible to clearly determine the courses after exact types. Additionally there are a lot of little, more unknown and inexactly defined golf courses. The most common mixture are golf courses with elements of the parkland-course and at the same time some of a links-course. But, apart from the design of a golf course they are also differentiated by their size and the access possibilities.
The size of a golf course is most commonly measured in the number of holes. A 18-hole golf course is the standard version. Furthermore can the size also be measured by the type of holes. The executive-course for example a course which can be played faster, because there are more par-3-holes, than par-4 or par-5-holes. He is similar to the so-called par-3-course – in there are only par-3-holes in order to offer a fast play. The probably shortest course of all variations is the “approach course”, it is a golf course which is specialized for exercise purposes.
The type or possibility of access is differentiated in public golf courses, resort courses, semi-private or private golf courses. Public golf courses are available for the entire public. They can either be property of the city or municipality, or the can also have a private owner. Resort courses are part of a hotel complex, but nevertheless they are often also open for public, the only exception to public courses is, that hotel guests are preferred for the tee-time reservation. At semi-private golf courses memberships are sold, but also non-members are allowed to play, it's similar to resort courses, that members are preferred in some cases. Completely private golf courses are only available for members. Non-members are only allowed to play on the golf course if they pay the green fee and are accompanied by a member of the private course.

Golf Range
Golf Range is the term for the area at a golf course where golfers can especially practice their full swings or sometimes also the short games. In there, golf players can totally concentrate on their stance, their golf swing and are not in a hurry as within the round, so they have time to correct possible mistakes. Most commonly, the golf range consists of an open field with a teeing ground at one end. Special golf ranges sometimes provide practice areas with bunkers, chipping, pitching and putting greens. It is also common to play some strokes at the golf range in order to warm up prior to starting the round. The golf range is more commonly known as driving range.

Golf Tee
The golf tee is an important part of every golfer's equipment. It is a little, thin wooden or plastic piece which raises the golf ball off the ground. The golf tee is used for playing the first stroke of every hole from the teeing ground. Basically, it is two or three inches high and at the top it has a stable position, where the golf ball sits before the stroke is played. The golfer inserts the tee in the ground, puts the golf ball on top and plays his stroke.

Golf Town
The golf town is an expression with multiple meanings. On the one hand side, written lower-case, it refers to a city, borough or metropolitan area with a plenty of golf courses and a lot of golfers. So this meaning is a flattering term. If Golf Town is written upper-case, it designates a chain of golf retail stores. The stores are founded 1999 and has shops in Canada as well as an online shop. As there is also an Amateur Tour in Canada, which is known as Golf Town Tour, this is the third common meaning of the term.

Good-Good
When used in golf, good-good is a term used for a process in match play. As golfers can concede putts within the match play, in the situation of a good-good the two opponents concede putts to each other. That means both are counted as holed out and the golf players can pick up their balls and move forward to the next hole – but all that only, if both sides are fine with the process, if not, they'll have to putt the ball. In stroke play the good-good doesn't exist.

Gorilla
The expression gorilla is vernacularly used for a golfer who managed to hit his tee shot for a long distance.

Gorse
Ulex europaeus is the scintific name for gorse. In general, it is a plant, or rather a shrub with thorns. The relation to golf is, that gorses are commonly plant in links courses in Europe, and therefore golfers should try to avoid getting in contact with a gorse or getting their golf ball in a gorse, because of the thorns and because it is densely overgrown. The gorse probably as famous as it is because it is a common plant at golf courses of the British Open. Other less common expressions for the gorse are hoth, corena, whin, espinillo or furze.

Grain
When used in golf, the grain refers to the direction of the turf and how the grass is growing at the putting green. The direction is determined by the cut, and it is important for golf players to know in which direction the turf is, because this can affect their putts. The golf ball rolls for example faster, if it is putted with the grain.

Grand Slam
A major is the most important tournament of a pro within one year. Winning all the four majors in one season is designated as grand slam. The career grand slam means, that one golfer won all majors once, but not within one calendar year.

Graphite
Graphite is a special material. It is basically carbon based and used to design shafts and clubheads.

Grass Bunker
A depression on the golf course, which consists of grass and isn't filled with sand, is called grass bunker. Even if a grass bunker looks like a real bunker and is also a little bit harder to play than normal ground, it is not seen as a bunker under the Rules of Golf. Therefore it is for example allowed to ground the golf club at a grass bunker, but not at a sand bunker.

Grass Club
Prior the 20th Century, when golf clubs had wooden shafts and for example woods were made out of wood, the grass club was a club, whose loft most closely matched today's drivers. Nowadays the term is actually not any more in use. A commonly used synonym is play club.

Grasscutter
If a shot travels low, but at the same time fast and skims the grass, it is vernacularly designated as grasscutter.

Great Triumvirate
The great triumvirate is a nickname for the three best golf players in the 19th/20th century. They dominated golf in Great Britain and were all British. They were James Braid, J.H. Taylor and Harry Vardon. Each of them won five, Harry Vardon even six times the British Open and he also won the U.S. Open once.

Green
The green or putting green is the turf which frames the hole. The design and size of a green can vary enormously, so there are no rules about what a green should have. The ground on the putting green is specially prepared and therefore it is easily remarkable where the greens are situated.

Greenfee
The fee golfers have to pay in order to get on the golf course is called green fee. The green fee depends individually on the golf course and usually the fee varies on the time of the week, of the day and also the status of the golfer. It is common, that weekends rounds cost more, whereas rounds played late in the day, thus a 18-hole round could not be finished any more, is cheaper. Sometimes the green fee is also written in another way: greens fee.

Green Grass
The green grass is a term in golf, which is either used in combination with pro shop or retail. Thus green grass is a shop, in which golf products are sold and at the same time it is located on the ground of a golf course. The clubhouse pro shop, which is situated at a golf course is called green grass pro shop.

Greenie
In golf, there are two common definitions for the expression greenies. First, it is a side bet for every golf player who reaches the green in regulation. Usually the greenies are included in variations of golf like Dots or Garbage. Prior the start of the round, a group has to afee on even the basics, like whether greenies are in effect and how much they are worth. Furthermore, greenies is also a term in golf for a statical category of greens in regulation, thus it can also be seen as a slang synonym for green in regulation. An alternate spelling would be greeny.

Green in Regulation (GIR)
The green in regulation or GIR is a statistical category usually proceeded within professional golf tours, but also in among amateur players or recreational golfers. In order to achieve the GIR, the hole must be reached within par, but in par there are always to putts for holing out included, thus, for achieving the GIR for example on a par-3 hole, the golfer has to reach the green within the first shot. On a par-4 hole, he has to reach it within two shots and on a par-5 hole in three shots. For fulfilling the requirement, the golf ball really has to be on the putting surface. The green in regulation is vernacularly also known as greenie.

Green Jacket
When used in golf, “green jacket” refers to a special piece of clothing. In fact, the winner of the US Masters wins the special mantle.

Greenkeeper
The greenkeeper is a person that maintains the golf course. He cares for the grounds at the golf course with for example jobs like aeration of mowing the turf. The supervisor of all greenkeepers is the headgreenkeeper who is in close contact with the operators of the golf course. Nowadays the greenkeepers are also often designated as course superintendent or maintenance crew.

Greensomes
A special golf tournament format is called greensomes. It is designed for four golfers, so two persons in each team. The basic concept is, that each golfer tees off with one golf ball at each hole and the best ball per team is selected. The team then plays this ball alternately until it's holed. This variation of golf can be played in match play as well as in stroke play. Other names for the format are Scotch Foursomes, Canadian Foursomes or Modified Pinehurst.

Grip (Equipment)
The grip is part of the golf club. In fact, it is the name for the section of the shaft, where the hands of the golf player are positioned.

Grip
The position of the hands of the golfer while he holds the golf club is called grip. There are grip versions, like for example the overlapping grip, the interlocking grip, the baseball-grip or the Vardon grip.

Groove (Equipment)
The grooves are scoring lines on the clubface of irons. Drivers sometimes also have cosmetic grooves which don't have impact to the shot, whereas the lines at irons can convey spin on the golf ball.

Groove
A swing which constantly follows the same path time after time is described as groove.

Gross/Gross Score
When used in golf, gross or gross score refers to a score, in which the handicap doesn't count. According to this it is the precise number of strokes the golfer has taken within the round plus penalty strokes. The “net score” is the opposite of the gross score.

Ground
To ground in golf is the point at which the golf club touches the ground before playing the shot. In water hazards it is prohibited to ground, because the grounding could move the ball. It is also often designated as grounding the club.

Grounding the Club
Grounding the club is part of the golf address. The golfer places the golf club on the ground behind the golf ball before he strikes the golf ball. This grounding is forbidden if the golf ball lies in bunkers or water hazards. Sometimes it is simply said to ground.

Ground under repair
The ground under repair or abbreviated GUR is a phase in which any part of the ground of the golf course is in correction or repair. This part is usually marked with white lines, ropes or stakes. The ground under repair is a part of the abnormal ground conditions after the Rules of Golf. If a golf ball fell into the ground under repair, the golfer has to pick it up and drop it outside the area which is in repair, because it is not allowed to play in the ground under repair.

Group Lesson
The group lesson is a special type of teaching lesson. In there, several pupils are taught together by one or more PGA Professionals. This kind of lesson is especially required for beginners or juniors.

Gruesomes
A special two-person team game in golf is called gruesomes. It is usually played as betting game, but can be played as golf tournament, too. The basic structure is, that each member of one team tees off. Then the opponent team selects the drive with which the other team has to move on. Afterwards the team has to move forward in alternate shot fashion with the selected golf ball. So obviously the teams chose the golf balls for their opponents and therefore they usually select the worst drive, or most gruesome – hence the name. The golfer who hit this worst shot also has to make the second shot with the golf ball and afterwards the two members of a team move forward in alternate shot fashion until it's holed out. This procedure is repeated for the whole round. The gruesomes is also known as yellowsomes.

Gutta Percha
Gutta Percha is a rubbery material which was used to produce golf balls after 1848. Those golf balls were called gutties and the golf game was much easier with that kind of balls, than before.

Guttie
The Guttie was a former golf ball which revolutionized playing golf. It was made out of a gutta-percha core. Afterwards the so-called Haskell golf ball type replaced the Guttie.

H

Hacker
When used in golf, hacker is a vernacular term for a poor golf player. The expression is more derogatory than for example duffer, even if duffer refers to similar golf skills. The origin of the term is probably a bad golfer “hacking” his way up to the hole and thereby for example creating several huge divots on the golf course.

Half/Halved
If two golfers or two teams managed to play a tie score within a match play, no matter whether it is on one hole, or on the complete match, the score is halved and each of the golf players earns one half of the hole or the match, so none of that none of them won.

Halfway house or Halfway hut
A building at the golf course – usually between the 9th and 10th holes, is called halfway house or halfway hut. In there, golfers can refresh themselves during the round with light snacks and drinks.

Ham and egg
The term ham and egg is used in golf, if two golfers of one team compliment each other and want to express that they are fitting like ham and egg.

Hammer/Hammers
The basic structure of the golf betting game hammer is, that either two golfers or two teams with two golf players in each play against each other. Prior to the game, the golfers have to agree on some basic rules and also an agreed-upon amount per hole. Thus obviously the golfers can create individual rules and an individual per-hole bet. Within the round, the golf players can hammer their opponents, that means they double the bet on that hole. The opponent can re-hammer the bet and so on. As a result, the game can become very expensive in a very short time, that is another reason, why it is particularly important to set the rules before teeing the round starts. Sometimes the betting game is also spelled with s, thus hammers.

Handicap
When used in golf, the handicap is the numerical representation of the golfer's potential. Basically, the function of the handicap is to compensate different skills, so that even poor golfers can win against very good ones. The handicap is generally structured in a well-known way. Thus usually a 18-hole golf course is designed to be played in 72 shots - for golfers with a personal handicap of 0. As a result, the golf course is designated to have par 72. After this specification the golfers abilities are measured, so if he needs more strokes and has a higher score, the number of additional scores is his handicap number. Let's say he plays a round with a score of 108 shots, then his handicap is -36, because he needed 36 more shots than the 72 defined ones. But a golfer has to fulfill some criteria in order to receive a handicap. In Germany and some other countries it is for example obligatory to get the licence to play golf courses, because in there the golfer proves knowledge about the sport and his skills. In Germany it is furthermore obligatory to become member of a golf course in order to gain an official handicap. But after receiving it, the handicap can obviously also be improved by Extra Day Score Rounds or within golf-tournaments. And for example the USGA has a special handicap calculation.

Handicap Allowance
The handicap allowance is the adjusted handicap. The adjustment depends on which competition a golfer has entered.

Handicap Differential
The handicap differential is used in order to calculate the handicap index. This number generally doesn't concern the golfer itself, but it influences the calculation of the handicap index, which the golf players usually don't do by themselves.

Handicap Index
The representation of the golf players skills for scoring is shown in a numeral with one decimal place. It is called USGA Handicap Index. The Handicap Index usually shows what is possible for the golfer, thus which score he can stroke the best. A complicated formula is needed in order to calculate the handicap index, but golfers don't need to figure them out by themselves.

Handicap Player
If a golf player has a recognized handicap, which was awarded by a Golf Club, he is designated as handicap player.

Handicap-Stroke Hole
A handicap-stroke hole is a hole, at which an opponent obtains one shot. This is only possible in match play and additionally it is generally defined by the stroke index of the cup.

Handsy
Handsy is the vernacular term for a golfer who has too much wrist movement in the golf swing or putting stroke. This movement causes unequal shots and putts.

Hand Wedge
If the golfer uses his hands for moving or nudging the golf ball into a better position for the next stroke, this is called hand wedge. The behavior is obviously forbidden under the Rules of Golf, and the expression is also only vernacularly used.

Hanging Lie
The hanging lie can either mean a golf ball lying below the feet, when a golfer sets the ball up on a sidehill, or it lies above his feet on a sidehill in the address position. The most common usage is, that it is below the golfer's feet. Another term for the hanging lie is sidehill lie.

Hangman
A score of nine on only one individual hole is called hangman. The origin of the term is probably, that some people see a similarity between the hangman's pole and the number nine. Compared to other poor scores, the hangman is one stroke better than the so-called Bo Derek, but one shot worse than the snowman.

Hardpan
Basically hardpan is the description for very hard ground conditions, usually hard, dry clay, with only little, or no grass inside. At the ground of a hardpan, the golfer has difficulties to take divots, but on the other side the golf ball can easily bounce up. As a result, the golf player will hit many shots thin.

Haskell
The haskell is a special version of golf balls. The characteristic of those golf balls is, that there are rubber straps wrapped around the inner section encased in gutta percha. Haskel golf balls were the following golf balls after Gutties. The golf balls are named after its inventor Coburn Haskell and looked like Gutties, but average golf players were able to shot about 20 yards more from the tee than with further golf balls. Later, haskell balls were improved and became the first golf balls with the dimple pattern.

Hate 'Em
A special variation of playing golf is called Hate 'Em. It can be played as betting game or as tournament format and the basic installation is, that the golfers who take part at first determine their three worst holes before the round starts. One addition can also be that the golf players have to chose one 3-par hole, one 4-par hole and one 5-par hole, but that can be decided individually. After they selected the holes, but also prior the round, they have to write down a par on each. Then the round starts and is usually played with full handicap. At the end, the strokes are added up, the three pars on the Hate 'Em holes, which are are estimated prior, are included in the summation, and the lowest player or team wins.

Head
One end of the golf club is the grip, the other end is the head or clubhead. The clubhead is the part of the golf club, with which a golf club strikes the golf ball. In general, there are many different types of heads. The design of the head can be flat, large and rounded or hollow. The different shapes of the head can influence many different factors like for example the center of gravity or the moment of inertia.

Heather
Golf players generally call all tall, thin turf which borders the primary rough on a golf course heather. It is challenging to play the golf ball out of the heather, because it blows back and forth in the wind and additionally the golf club can tangle up in this grass.

Heathland Course
A special kind of golf course is called heathland course. The courses are something like a mixture between links courses and parkland courses, because they are inland golf courses like parkland courses, but provide plenty of heather and gorse like typical links courses. Also similar to links courses is, that fairways at heathland courses can be hilly and have unusual bounces inside. Whereas another similarity to parkland courses is, that the heathland course can probably have some trees.

Heel
Generally, the heel is the part of the clubhead, where the clubhead is mounted at the shaft.

Heel and Toe: Weighted
In order to lower the influence of mis-hits, the weight in some golf club designs is distributed to heel and toe of the clubhead.

High Side
If a golf hole is situated in any inclination, and therefore the cup, the uphill edge is called high side. A putt usually breaks from this side. The opposite of it is the low side.

Hit a Brick
Hit a brick is the expression for a shot on the green. The speciality about that shot is, that the golf ball doesn't roll by the cup.

Hitch
If a golfer made a clear disruption within the golf swing, this noticeable failure is called hitch.

Hit It Flush
If a golfer hit it flush, he managed to hit a golf ball perfectly at the impact, so he made the best possible contact between the clubface and the golf ball.

Hitter
Hitter is the designation for a golf player who generally has a vigorous, aggressive swing style.

Hog
A special golf betting game which is played with four members is called hog. The game fits perfectly for golfers with similar golf skills, in any other case it is required to use full handicaps. Within the game, one golfer is designated to be the hog on each hole, but the order rotates through the round. At every hole, all players first tee off. Then the golf player who is the hog, can either decide to play against all the other three members or determine a partner for the hole and make a 2-on-2. No matter what he choses, the goal is in any case to win the hole, because thereby he can win either points or alternatively (if previously agreed-upon) also a money value. The point scale is regulated like this: In case, the hog won alone against all three opponents, he gains 3 points, whereas if he loses all the others gain one point each. If he decides to play 2-on-2 and his team wins, they get one point each, if they lose, the other team gets one point per golfer. After the round each golfer adds his points and the differences are paid out.

Hogan's Alley
Hogan's Alley refers to different things. The Hogan's Alley is the nickname of two golf courses and the real name of one hole, because famous Ben Hogan was very successful at all those locations. The Hogan's Alley hole is hole No. 6 at the Championship Course at Carnoustie Golf Links in Carnoustie, Scotland. This is a very challenging hole, because at one side it is save, but wide to play, and at the other side with the better line there are bunkers and out-of-bounds. Hogan played the hole at the challenging side and therefore won the tournament. The golf courses Riviera Country Club in Pacific Palisades, Calif and Colonial Country Club in Fort Worth, Texas, are both nicknamed with Hogan's Alley, because at Riviera he won the Los Angeles Open several times and additionally the U.S. Open there. At the Colonial Country Club he hold the tournament record of the Colonial National Invitation Tournament with five victories.

Hogies/Hogans
In case a golfer hit the fairway with his drive, hit the putting green with the approach shot and then putts twice for par on a hole, he wins a Hogie. Hogie is a common side bet which is often included in Garbage or Dots. Prior playing Hogies it is also important to decide how much a Hogie is worth. The value can either be expressed in monetary value or in points. As usual, the points of each golfer are counted after the bet and the bet is paid off afterwards. The Hogies is sometimes also called Hogans or Faldos. An exception of the Hogans are par-3 holes, because a golf player can't hit a fairway on those holes. Furthermore as in many other side bets it is up to the golfers, which individual rules they want to define at their holes.

Hold
If the golf ball doesn't roll forward and stays near or exactly where it landed, this is designated as hold. Furthermore hold is also the name for when the golf ball stays on the green after its landing.

Hole
The hole in golf is basically the object of the game. In fact, it has three different meanings. First, it is the central point at the putting green, golfers can recognize it all over the golf course by the flagstick and if the pin is removed, it is the actual hole in the putting green. That is the general goal and fixed point of the golf player. The Rules of Golf regulate, that it has a size of 4.25 inches and is four inches deep. Cup is a synonym for this meaning of the hole. Furthermore, hole is also the designation for the entire area from the teeing area through the fairway up to the putting green with the hole, thus hole is in general also the term for the way the golf ball should take at each hole. A traditional golf course has 18 holes in total.

Holed
If a golfer managed it to shot a golf ball into the cup, it is considered to be holed. In case the golf ball is holed, this means at the same time that the hole is completed. Within a match play, a golf ball is also considered as holed, if the opponent conceded the putt.

Hole High
Hole high is the designation for an approach shot, within the golfer managed to position the golf ball with the hole, but off to the left or the right. Another more common expression for that situation is pin high.

Hole-in-one
A hole in one is the designation for the event when a golfer holed out with just one shot, so directly from the teeing ground. The score of the hole is then one. In general, the possibility of a hole in one rises, the better the skills of a golfer are, and the shorter the hole is in general. For that reason holes in one are more common at par-3 holes, and rare at par-4 or par-5 holes. Another term for the hole in one is ace.

Hole-in-one Contest
The hole-in-one contest as the name says, is a contest with the focus of scoring a hole-in-one. It can either be part of a tournament or also be a stand-alone event. If a golf player managed to make an ace, he can win large prizes, like cars or monetary sums up to million-dollar prizes, within the contest. The contest are sometimes charity events, and therefore the golf balls with which the golfers can tee off are often sold, the golfers can buy several balls so that they receive multiple chances.

Hole-in-one Insurance
The so-called hole-in-one insurance is an insurance for golf courses, tournaments, organizations, companies, charities or whoever stages a hole-in-one contest. The main function of the insurance is, that in case a golfer wins the contest, and therefore also the large prize like for example a car or a high monetary prize, the organizer does not have to pay the prize, as the insurance pays it.

Hole Locations
The expression hole locations has several meanings. In the singular usage it means where the cup is situated on the putting green. When used in plural, the hole locations can refer to the general locations of the cups, like for instance whether they are in difficult positions with close hazards or the other way round in easy positions away from hazards.

Hole Sheet
In golf, the putting green and the position of the flagstick are marked at a so-called hole sheet. Sometimes golf courses provide those sheets, with them, golfers can estimate their approach shots. The sheet is synonymously called pin sheet.

Hole Out
When used in golf, hole out can be used as noun or verb, and therefore has different meanings. First, the shot, with which the golfer holed his golf ball is designated as hole out. On the other hand side, as verb, the term hole out can also mean the process of stroking the ball into the cup and therefore completing the hole.

Home
Among golfers the term home is used in order to express, that the golfer stroke the golf ball onto the putting green.

Home Pro
A so-called home pro is a professional who is resident at the golf club, so reverse the golf club is his home club.

Honest John
A side bet within golf is called honest john. In there, the golfers play in a group and prior to the round each golf player has to pay an agreed-upon amount into a pot. Also before the round, each golfer forecasts the score he'll stroke within the round in his scorecard. Next the group plays the round and afterwards they compare the actual score and the predicted score. The golfer who played closest to his predicted score wins honest john and therefore also the pot. A huge advantage of honest john is, that it is a side bet where golf players with different skill levels can play against each other and at the same time everyone who takes part in the golf game gets knowledge about his own skills.

Honey Pot
A special golf tournament prize fund or bonus pool is called honey pot. If there is a golf tournament with a honey pot, each golfer can optionally pay an agreed-upon amount in the pot. If he does so, he is part of the honey pot from then on and eligible to win the money in there. Usually, the winner earns 50 percent, the second one 30 percent and the third winner 20 percent. What counts to the money pot are for example the longest drive or a closest to the pin.

Honors (order of play)
Honors is the determining order of play after the Rules of Golf or rather after the etiquette. But in fact there are no penalties if golfers disregard the honors neither in stroke play nor in match play. The main function of honors is, that the golfer who has it, is allowed to hit first from the tee box. At the first tee the determination can be either randomly or by any desired means. Afterwards the golf player with the lowest score has the honors at the following hole. If two golfers stroke a tie, the golfer who previously had the honors again is allowed to tee first.

Honors (betting game)
A side bet in golf is designated as honors. At first a value for each point is determined. Within the play, every time a golfer or team managed it to get the honors, he or it earns a point. In case of a tie, the side which had the honor at the previous hole holds it as long as the other side managed it to win a hole and therefore the honors. At the end the points are tallied up and the difference is payed off. A synonym for this game is appearances.

Hood
When used in golf, the term hood and its variations hooded or hooding the Club do have several meanings. At first, hooding the club can mean, that the golf player presses his hands forward and therefore he makes his clubface more upright. A result is a lower trajectory. But in fact, hooding can also be the designation for shutting or closing the clubface and so the golfer counteracts a slice but produces a hook.

Hook
A hook is the opposite of a slice. That means for a right-handed golfer, he shot his golf ball out to the right and within the flight it curves strongly to the left. The result is, that the ball misses its objective because its too left. For left-handed golfer the process is exactly the other way round. The hook is a mis-hit which often happens to amateur golfers and once they have the habit it's hard to straighten it out.

Hosel
The so-called hosel is one component of the clubhead. Basically the hosel is the connector between the shaft and the clubhead, thus the shaft is fitted in the hosel. Usually the hosel is covered by a plastic ferrule, which has no other meaning than covering the connection point.

Hosel Rocket
A special variation of a mis-hit is colloquially called hosel rocket. Within this shot, the impact was at the hosel – hence the name – and therefore the shot commonly shoots out to the right at a strong angle. Another name for the hosel rocket is shank.

Hustler
In golf, the term hustler is used in order to describe a cheating golfer. The hustler maintains a higher handicap in order to win the bets within the play more easily. Other expressions with a similar meaning are sandbagger or bandit.

Hybrid
In case a golf club is a combination of an iron and a wood, it is designated as hybrid. Those clubs have the enormous advantage, that golfers can especially manage long hits (between 150 and 220 meters) with hybrids, but they are also suitable in the rough, because those clubs are less caught by the higher grass. Therefore hybrid clubs are an important companion at the golf course. Sometimes they are also called rescue clubs.

I

Immovable Obstruction
In case a golf ball lies in or on an immovable obstruction on the golf course, the golfer is allowed to take a free relief without penalty from the nearest point of relief on. This point is determined and the golfer can drop with one club length of that location without penalty. That means for example, if the immovable obstruction is in a bunker, the golf ball has to be dropped in the bunker, if the golf player doesn't want to take penalty. Furthermore, if a golfer encounters an immovable obstruction within the putting green, the golf ball has to be situated to the nearest point of relief. That also means the golfer is not allowed to place his ball nearer to the hole, but in fact it is the nearest potential point off the green. Within Rule 24 of the Rules of Golf the exact processes associated with the immovable obstructions are listed.

Impact
A very important moment in the golf game is the impact. It is the point within the swing, in which the golf club contacts the golf ball and strikes it. The success or failure of the shot depends a lot on this moment.

Improved Lie
In bad weather conditions – mainly in the winter month or due wet conditions, this course rule takes effect: The golfer is allowed to alter the position of the golf ball, that's called the improved lie. Usually he's allowed to change the location of the ball for the distance of one scorecard in order to make a clear contact possible. But in fact, the improved lie is an individual golf club rule and isn't generally permitted.

In
Within an 18-hole golf course, the last or rather second nine holes are designated as in. Additional designations are back side, back nine or last nine. The opposite are the holes 1-9, those are either called front nine, front side or out. Furthermore in is also the term for a golf ball, which is in the game, thus not out-of-bounds.

Inactive Season
During the inactive season the golfer can't use his scores in order to adjust his handicap.

In contention
In case a golfer has high probability to win a tournament, this is called “in contention”. If a golf player rises the leaderboard within the tournament, among golfers, this is designated as “moving into contention”.

Index
The index is the short for for handicap index. The index is basically a numeral with one decimal place which represents the skills for scoring. In total it is called USGA Handicap Index and in general it shows the minimum possible score for the golf player, so which score he strokes in his best condition. In order to calculate the index it needs a complex formula, but usually golf players don't need to calculate it by themselves.

Indio Effect
The ANA Inspiration is an LPGA Tour major championship. In there, the Indio effect occurs. That means the tendency for putted balls to break toward Indio, a city near the California desert. Thus it is an advantage for golfers to know where Indio lies prior putting because their golf ball will break in that direction. But the reality is, that the break is not caused by the city Indio, but caused by the contours of the putting green.

In Play
The official opposite of out-of-bounds is called in play, that means after the tee shot the golf ball comes to rest somewhere on the golf course within its boundaries. As a golf ball is only in play, if it lies within the playing area of the course, the term also includes, that the following stroke is playable.

Insert
Insert is the expression for a little filler of the hollowed out area in the club face of a clubhead. As the hollowed out area is known as cavity back the insert often occurs at irons. This little pad can contain of cavity badge, vibration-dampening polymer or solid metal. Among other advantages an insert the golf club is for example supposed to be more forgiving and provides more feel.

Inside
The so-called inside in golf is the expression for a golf player's ball is closer to the hole than the ball of his challenger.

Inside the Leather
In case a golf ball rests close to the hole on the putting green, the designation is inside the leather. As putter grips were made out of leather in the past, this is the origin of the expression. Thus inside the leather in its origin means, that the distance from the bottom of the putter grip to the clubhead of the putter is as close as the distance from the golf ball to the hole. Inside the leather is also an approximate measurement for the decision of a gimmie. In order to measure the distance, the golfer places the putter of the clubhead inside the cup on the green. Then he lays the putter flat on the putting surface and extends the back to the golf ball. As written before, within this measurement the ball is inside the leather, if it lies between hole and the bottom of the grip. This measurement needs to be done very carefully in order not to damage the edges of the cup.

Inside-to-In
If the clubhead travels from inside the target line, to the contact and afterwards back to inside the target line, this is called inside-to-In swing. It generally produces a solid, straight on-target shot.

Inside-to-Out
Within the inside-to-out, the clubhead contacts the golf ball from inside the target line and it goes to the outside of the target line until it finally turns back to inside the line.

Intended Line of Flight
Intended line of flight is a term that refers to the direction a golfer plans for his golf ball to fly after the contact with the clubface – thus after the impact.

Interlock
Interlock is the abbreviation of interlocking grip. In that kind of grip the little finger of one hand and the index finger of the other hand get interlocked with each other. This grip is especially requested to golf players with little hands, powerless wrists and weak forearms, because as the hands are kind of locked, golfers with those characteristics get more stability with the help of this grip.

Interlocking Grip
The so-called interlocking grip is a special version of gripping the golf club. Characteristically the pinkie of one hand gets interlocked with the index finger of another hand. A right-handed golfer will have his right hand above his left hand, thus he interlocks his right little finger with his left index finger. Left-handed golf players do it exactly the other way round. Pro-Golfers like Tiger Woods or Jack Nicklaus use the interlocking grip as well as beginners. The style of grip fits the best for golf players with small hands, powerless forearms or weak wrists. A commonly used abbreviation of the interlocking grip is interlock.

In the Bucket
One variation of best-ball tournament is called in the bucket. There are four persons in one team. Each golfers' score is used as team score rotating every fourth hole, at the first hole it is simply the best ball, so the best score counts as team score. But as every players' score has to be taken every four holes, the golfer whose golf ball was taken first is not counted for the following three holes. So only in hole four if every other score has been taken once, his score could be counted again. After all scores where taken once all scores count again and so forth. The golfers can agree on individual rules within their play and the general game is also called eliminator.

Investment Casts
Investment casts refers to a special casts manufacturing method of clubheads. The metal clubheads are produced by molten metal which is poured into moulds for clubs.

Invitational
A type of golf tournament, in which the golfers who are allowed to take part need to be invited or have a qualification for an invitation is called invitational. The invitational is the opposite to an open, where every golfer is allowed to take part.

Inward Half
Within an 18-hole golf course, the last nine holes, thus holes 10-18 are called inward half. Furthermore synonyms for those holes are back nine, back side, in, inward nine and last nine. The opposite of the inward half are front nine or outward half, meaning the first nine holes.

Inward Nine
Another designation for the last nine holes of an 18-hole golf course is inward nine. Those holes 10-18 are additionally known as back nine, in, last nine, back side or inward half. But the term inward nine has its origin therein, that the holes 1-9 usually went away form the clubhouse, whereas the inward nine went back, so in the direction of the clubhouse.

Irish Four Ball
Irish Four Ball refers to a tournament format of Australia. In there, teams of four golf players use a Stableford or Modified Stableford scoring system and each plays their own golf ball. The scores of some team members are combined in order to built the team score. Prior the game, the number of team members whose scores are summarized is determined. There are different variations for the team scoring system. One of them is, that the two lowest scores per hole are added for the team score. Another one is, that for holes 1-6 the lowest golf ball per hole counts, from hole 7-11 it's the two lowest scores, from hole 12-15 the three low balls are summarized and at the remaining holes all three scores are combined as team score. Another common variation is, that the combined team scores depend on the par of the hole. Thus at a par-3 hole the two lowest scores are summarized for the team score, at par-4 holes the three lowest golf balls and at a par-5 hole all four scores count as the team score. But in fact the golfers can decide individually how they want to determine the team score.

Iron
The designation for iron was in the past only for golf clubs where the clubheads were actually made out of iron. Nowadays also golf clubs which are made out of other metal are called iron. Distances between 20 and 180 meters are shot with irons. The numeration of irons has a special meaning: a iron 1 has only few loft, an iron 9 on the other hand side has a lot of loft. Furthermore the irons differentiate also because of different lengths of the shafts, thus the irons 1 and 2 have for instance longer shafts and therefore they are harder to play. Therefore the irons 3 to 9, the sand-wedge and the pitching wedge are are commonly more likely played among most of the golfers. Most of the time irons are used to hit from the fairway, but sometimes also from the tee. Characteristic for irons are their grooves, thus scoring lines at the clubface.

Iron Byron
Iron Byron is the name of a special testing device for testing clubs and golf balls. The name origins therein, that it is modeled after Byron Nelson's golf swing.

Island Green
In case a putting green is surrounded by water, it is called island green. In the past those areas were rare, but meanwhile they are more common. Usually those island greens are found on par-3 holes, but they can occur on other par-4 or par-5 holes, too. And in general most of the island greens are no real islands but more like peninsulas, thus not completely surrounded by water but have a land connection.

J

Jab
Jab is the designation for a special putting stroke. It is usually short but at the same time quick and commonly it can also be erratic.

Jack and Jill
Within a jack and jill golf tournament, the golf players in a team are composed by mixed genders. Thus there are always men and women paired together in teams. Usually, there are 2-person teams and specific variations of golf like best ball, alternate shot are used.

Jack Nicklaus Award
The Jack Nicklaus Award is an annually award for the best men's college golfer in the USA. The Golf Coaches Association of America presents the award. The name, Jack Nicklaus exists since 1998 and Jack Nicklaus won the NCAA men's championship in 1961.

Jack Nicklaus Medal
Jack Nicklaus won the NCAA men's championship in 1961 and therefore, since 2012 the Jack Nicklaus Medal is named after him. The Medal is awarded to the winner of the U.S. Open who additionally also receives a trophy and other prizes.

Jack Nicklaus Trophy
The Jack Nicklaus Trophy is presented to the winner of the year on the PGA Tour, to the golfer of the year on the Champions Tour and also to the player of the year on the Web.com Tour. At the PGA Tour the winner of the Trophy is voted by the PGA Tour players. Jack Nicklaus himself won this award at the PGA Tour five times, and it is named after him since the beginning of the trophy in 1990.

Jerk
A jerk is a golf shot with a straight trajectory but the final lie is left or right from the hole and therefore the golf ball doesn't hole out. Sometimes the jerk is also called pull or yank.

Jigger
The name jigger in the past referred to an old golf club of the 20th Century. It was roughly equivalent to a today's 4-iron. As it had a short, wooden shaft, it was usually used to perform chip or approach shots. But on the other hand side term is also a designation for a short pitching club which was used for the play around the putting green – nowadays this is basically similar to a pitching wedge. It is synonymously also called pitching niblick or lofting iron.

Joe Pesci
A downhill putt breaking away from the golf player and either ending up in a hazard, holes out or ends up farther from the hole, is designated as Joe Pesci. Joe Pesci was an actor who played tough guys and therefore the putt is named after him.

Joker's Wild
Joker's Wild is a golf tournament for four-person teams. Within the play, play cards determine, whose score counts for each hole. Therefore, it has to be randomly designated prior the game, which card - heart, diamond, spade, club – goes with which golfer. Afterwards all golfers tee off and play until the teeing ground of the first hole. Then, one variation is, that the golfers find one playing card in the hole and this card determines whose score counts for that hole. This procedure repeats at each hole. Another variation is, that all team members play the first hole completely and move on to the next teeing ground. There, the playing card that counted for the prior hole is displayed. Obviously it is also possible to show two or even more playing cards at each variation and those are combined for the team score at the hole. But those specifications can agreed-upon individually. In both variations it is clarified, that in case the joker shows up, the lowest score of the team counts as team score at the hole. In fact, in order to play this tournament variation a tournament committee has to prepare and mix all the displayed cards prior the play.

Jumper
A shot, that flies longer than the golfer wanted it to, is called jumper. Usually the jumper results because it's played from the rough, but furthermore also the lie of the golf ball, like for example in wet conditions, can cause the farther shot. The shot flies as far as it does because the golf ball has roughly spin or even none of it and therefore the golfer clearly overshoot his objective. Other designations for the far shot are flier or flyer.

K

Kick
When used in golf, kick refers to a golf ball that bounces, usually golfers shout to their golf balls within the flight: kick left or kick right, and thereby they try to command their balls where to go in order to be at the target line or rather hole out.

Kickpoint
The name for one component of the golf club is kickpoint. In detail, it refers to a the point at the golf club, where it bends the most. The bending affects the trajectory of the ball after the impact. If the kickpoint is located nearer to the head of the golf club, the golf ball usually flies higher, whereas in case the point is situated further away from the clubhead, it flies flatter. Even if this is proved, the kickpoint is usually not crucial for a good or a bad game. A golf player can also decide a specific kickpoint for his golf clubs, therefore an analysis of the golf swing is required. Other terms for the kickpoint are bend point or flex point.

Kickuyu
A special African grass species is called Kickuyu. It is characteristically fast-growing if it receives full sunshine and hot water, therefore it doesn't fit to woodland or temperate climates.

Kinesiology
The kinesiology is the scientific survey of a person's movement, also in combination with his movements of implements which he uses within his play. In there, several issues and variations are inspected in order to improve the golf play.

Kitty Litter
Kitty litter is generally a colloquial term for a sand bunker, because in combination with its litter it reminds on a cat box. Hence, cat box is also a slang term for a bunker.

Knee Knocker
In case a golfer has to hit a short cut, which he shouldn't fail, but nevertheless does, it is called knee knocker.

Knickers
Knickers is the American designation for special golf trousers which end shortly below the knee and are worn in combination with knee socks. This is a very characteristic outfit for golfers. In Britain, the trousers are either called plus fours or plus twos.

Knife
In the past, all iron heads were forged. And as the one-iron was the sharpest and therefore most dangerous to use, a slang term for this iron was knife.

Knockdown Shot
Basically, the so-called knockdown shot or knock-down is the designation for a golf shot with a general low trajectory within the flight of the golf ball. Usually the special shot is played within a strong wind or crosswind, or if there is an obstacle, under which the golfer wants the golf ball to fly in order not to touch it. To play a knockdown shot, the golf ball first is farther back in the golfer's stance, furthermore the golfer plays with a shorter backswing, a quicker follow through and additionally with less loft.

KP
KP are initial letters for the term closest to the pin, thus a contest at par-3 holes. It gives a special accolade for the golf player who is closest to the cup.

L

Ladder Tournament
The ladder tournament is a golf tournament variation which is usually played in groups of golf players. Usually it is ranked from the weakest to the strongest player and every golfer plays as individual. When competing against strong golfers, the low position golf players try to improve their position, hence to move up the ladder. In general there don't need to be organized play dates, because the ladder tournament can take place over an extended time period. A speciality is, that only the lower-ranked golfers can challenge the higher ones up to three spots above, but not the other way round. In case the challenging golf player wins, he changes place with his opponent. Usually a ladder tournament takes place in a 3-month period through the summer and the golfer who reached the highest place at the end wins the tournament.

Ladies Tees
As there are multiple sets of tees at the tee box on each hole, the forward ones are called ladies tees. Thus if a golfer always plays from the “ladies tees” within one round, he automatically plays the shortest possible length. The golfers usually select the tees where they play off out of their skills, meaning how far they are able to hit. As women most commonly hit their golf balls not as far as men, and therefore often chose the forward tees, the name for those tees arose. Meanwhile the expression isn't adequate any more, because a lot of women are also able to play from the backward tees, whereas some men tee off from the forward ones. Thus therefore the synonyms forward tees or red tees are often used for the ladies tees.

Ladies Playday
In the past, there was a time, where women were not allowed to play golf whenever they wanted to and the “good” tee times were usually reserved to men. Women generally had to reserve dates on designated ladies playdays. This discrimination meanwhile exists only in rare golf courses. Furthermore, meanwhile ladies playday is also the expression for a tournament day which is only permitted for women. Thus in case there are both, men's and women's associations, at one golf club, the tournaments which are only for women are designated in that way. Sometimes they are also called women's playday.

Lag
A so-called lag or lag putt is basically a long putt, which either holes out or takes precautions for a following short putt, and this following putt then holes out. The general target of a lag putt is to avoid a 3-putt, because par is usually designed for at maximum two putts on the putting green. “Lag” is sometimes also used as verb to lag in order to describe a long putt.

Last Man Standing
A special variation of golf is called last man standing. In there, each golf player also carries a flag. Prior the start, every golfer receives a specified stroke number and wherever the strokes run out within the round, the golf players have to stick their flag. The winner of the contest is the golfer who played farthest. Before the start of the round, the golfers can agree on whether using partial handicaps or full ones. In case the golfers agree on using full handicaps, there are usually golfers who have remaining strokes at the end of the round. Then golf players can either move on playing from hole one or it can also stop at the end of the round, thus at hole 18. If the golfers agree on stopping after the 18th hole, the golfer who has the most remaining strokes wins the last man standing. Synonyms for the variation are Tombstone, Flags or Flag Competition.

Las Vegas
Las Vegas is the name of a golf betting game in golf. The basic structure is, that there are two teams with two golf players in each. The team score is the pairing of the two scores. For example scores of 4 and 6 result in a team score of 46 and not in 10. But in fact, the lower number always goes first, so that it can't be 64 at the given example. An additional regulation can be the so-called “flip the bird” variation. It needs to be agreed-upon whether the additional rule is used or not. But in case it is used, it means, if one golf player shot a birdie his team score is reversed, thus the lower score, meaning the birdie, stands at second place, not the higher. Another commonly used expression for the whole betting game is Daytona.

Las Vegas Scramble
One variation of the typical scramble in golf is the Las Vegas Scramble. In that competition format, four-person teams are built and a 6-sided die is prepared. Prior the game, each team member receives an individual number between one and four. All golfers of the team tee off at the first teeing ground. After that, the die is thrown. In case it showas any number between one and four, the golf player with the matching number is the one whose score counts as team score for that hole. If on the other hand side the number 5 or 6 comes up at the die, the team can determine the best drive and this golfers' score is afterwards counted as team score. After the decision about whose score counts, the hole is holed out in regular scramble fashion. Another important fact is, that the Las Vegas Scramble isn't a synonym for the betting format Las Vegas - those are different game variations in golf, even if the name sounds similar.

Lateral Slide
Lateral Slide or Lateral Shift are both designations for the same effect within the golf swing. Generally they describe an activity prematurely in the forward swing. In there, the hips slide to the target and rotate. At the same time the weight is moved from the trail side in the direction of the target side. In order to fulfill a good and proper swing, this movement and especially also its timing are very important.

Lateral Water Hazard
A lateral water hazard is a water hazard lying sidewards of a hole. It can run the full length downward a hole. Characteristically for lateral water hazards is, that they usually are undroppable, thus it is not practical or maybe even impossible to play drop behind the hazard. The official definition of lateral water hazards is regulated in Rule 26 within the Rules of Golf. Usually those hazards need to be noticeable designated by red stakes or red lines.

Launch Angle
The angle of ascent of a golf ball directly after the impact and relatively to the groundline from where it was struck is expressed in degrees. It is called launch angle. Factors like swing speed, angle of attack, the clubface position at impact and as biggest component the loft of the golf club are influencing the launch angle. Meanwhile manufacturers can optimize the launch angle even at the design, but the launch angle also depends enormously of the swing skills of a golfer and at the clubfitting an individual launch angle can be adapted. The improved launch angle can lead to more carry and therefore more distance.

Lay Off
When used in golf, lay off is the term for a golf swing, which flattens out at top of the backswing. The result is, that the golf club points to one side of the hole and the clubface closes.

Layout
In golf, layout is the term referring to the architecture and arrangement of the golf course.

Lay Up
In case a golfer shots shorter than he would be able to, this behavior is called lay up. It is performed if a golf player wants to avoid hitting a hazard or a certain position. Within a proficient course management, lay up shots are commonly played.

Leader in the clubhouse
The leader in the clubhouse is the designation for the golfer with the lowest score who already completed the regulation play.

Leading Edge
The foremost edge at the sole of a golf club is designated as leading edge. It received its name as it guides the golf swing.

Learning Center
A total practice and education installation is called learning center. And it can either be situated on the site of a golf course or not.

Level-Par
In case a golfer scored exactly par, level-par is the designation for that achievement.

Lever System
As the skeletal system of bones acts as levers, the lever system designates this movement. The main levers within the golf swing are on the one hand side the target arm, which is basically comprised out of the radius of the lower arm and the humerus of the upper arm. On the other hand side, another important lever in golf is the one of the golf club, when the target wrist is cocked.

Lie
The term Lie has basically several usages in golf. On the one hand side it refers to the location of the golf ball at rest. If the term is used in that way, it usually also describes a good or bad position. Another meaning of lie is, that it designates the number of strokes the golfer used to locate the golf ball there. Thus a question asking what do you lie? in fact means how many strokes did you use?. As third meaning, lie is shorthand for lie angle, in this usage it is the designation for the angle of the shaft relatively to the sole. If the lie angle of a golf club suits the golfer's swing characteristic, he can benefit of the higher or lower lie.

Lie Angle
The golf club's angle between the center of the shaft and the sole is called lie angle. In order to measure the lie angle, the golfer soles the club flat on the ground with a straightforward line renewing back from the heel of the club along the ground. The most common lie angle is usually between the mid-50 degrees and the mid-60 degrees. It is important, that the lie angle matches to the swing characteristics of the golf player. Sometimes the lie angle is only abbreviated with lie.

Lights-Out
Lights-Out is an expression for a magnificent golf play, meaning either an outstanding round or some excellent played holes.

Line
The line is the way which the golf balls should follow after a stroke. The line is especially important if it's on the putting green, meaning the putting line. Stepping on the line or the putting line counts as violation against the etiquette of golfing.

Line of Flight
Line of flight is the designation for the factual path the golf ball takes.

Line of Play
When used in golf, line of play designates the expected way a golf ball should travel. The line of play naturally ends at the cup and doesn't go beyond the hole, because it's obviously the target to hole out.

Line of Putt
The line of putt is the expression referring to the way a golf player intends his golf ball to roll after he putted it. As the cup is the target, the line of putt is of course not going beyond the hole.

Line Up
A synonym for the alignment of a golfer is line up. The term refers to the position of the golfers' body in the direction of his target. It is generally crucial for the perfect swing, that the parts of his body, meaning the feet, hips and shoulders are aligned parallel to the target line.

Links Courses
Links courses are a special variation of golf courses. Golf was originally invented at links courses in Scotland. It is characteristically for links courses, that they are for example built along arenaceous coastlines. Therefore they usually contain of coast grass and usually don't provide trees, furthermore the green is most commonly large and slowly and the fairways are rather fast and tough. Additionally, as it is situated nearby the coast, the links course is usually open for wind, but on the other hand side it is casted by rain and therefore it is easy to maintain. Another common feature at links courses are deep, big bunkers.

Lip
When used in golf, lip can either refer to a bunker or to a hole. The lip of a bunker is basically a edge of sod or turf, which is situated around the bunker like a rim and complicates the shots out of the bunker. There are different sizer of those lips, but they can even overhang the sand below. A lip of the hole is generally the designation for the rim of the cup. In case a golf ball stops just a short distance before the hole is designated to hang on the lip, whereas lip out is the term describing the case that a golf ball catched the edge of the cup but doesn't hole out.

Lip Out
A putt, where the golf ball catches the lip of a hole and doesn't fall in is called lip out. Golfers always try to avoid lip outs, because it costs a following putt and this heightens the score.

Lob Shot
A pitch shot, which is shorter played is called lob shot. In order to create the maximum height of the trajectory, golf players generally use a high-lofted wedge, usually the so-called lob wedge, for this pitch shot – hence the name. The objective of a lob shot is, that the ball first flies high, but has a quick landing and stopping on the putting green. A common reason for that shot is, if there is one more hazard until the golf ball reaches the putting green or even the hole. Sometimes the shot is abbreviated with lob and it is also known as flop shot, flop or flip shot.

Lob Wedge
The lob wedge is a particular wedge with a high loft. Golfers often use the lob wedge in order to play a lob shot.

Local Knowledge
A golfer, who played a particular golf course several times and therefore is aware of its individual characteristics and features, is said to have local knowledge about this golf course.

Local Rule
Additionally to the rules of golf, golf courses can have individual rules for the specific golf course. They are called local rules and concern for example the abnormal conditions or include any other specifications of the golf course.

Loft
If the clubface lies relative to a perfectly vertical cclubface which is represented by the shaft of the golf club, this angle is called loft or loft angle. As it's common for angles, the measurement is expressed in degrees. Thus, as an illustration, in case one imagines a line running down the shaft of a golf club into the ground and another virtual line extending from the top of the face of the golf club, also into the ground. The meeting point of those lines is an angle and this in turn is the loft or loft angle. The loft affects the trajectory and the distance a golf ball will fly. It is basically experienced, that the more loft a golf club has, the shorter will be his flying distance, but at the same time it will be a high shot. Within the different types of golf clubs, excluding putters, the drivers have generally the less loft, which is between 9 and 12.5 degrees, whereas the wedges have the highest loft angle, running between 60 and 64 degrees.

Lofting Iron
The lofting iron is a 20th Century, thus historical, golf club. Characteristically was a short, wooden shaft, for which it was most commonly used for chipping or approaches. In comparison to modern golf clubs it is most similar wedges or a 4-iron. The lofting iron is synonymously called jigger or pitching niblick.

Lone Ranger
Lone Ranger is a competition format for groups of four golfers. First, all members tee off within the competition. For the creation of the team score two scores are combined. One of those scores is the one of the lone ranger golfer. As second score, the lowest one among the other three scores is determined. Within the round, the lone ranger title rotates through the golf players in one team. Other expressions for the lone ranger are money ball, pink ball, yellow ball, devil ball or pink lady.

Long and Short
A particular golf format is called long and short. In there, two-person teams compete against each other. The basic structure is simple: one of the members is determined to stroke all long shots, meaning drives or approach shots, whereas the other golfer in the team plays all short shots, such as pitches, chips or putts. There are different variations of playing the format. On the one hand side it can be either played as match play, in a team versus team structure, or in a stroke play format as team versus field stroke play. The tournament organizers can specify exact distances for short and long plays, so that no disagreements can rise about whose players' shot it is.

Longest Yard
In golf, one golf betting game is called Longest Yard. It can be played in groups of golfers with either two, three or four golfers. The speciality about the game variation is, that in case a golfer wins a hole there are no traditional points awarded, but the yardage of the hole are the awarded points. Meaning if a hole is 450 yards long, the golfer who wins the hole receives 450 points. As a general golf course can usually have 5000 to 7000 yards, it means at stake those points can be won. Longest Yard can be either played in a group versus group format, or in a one versus one format. It is also possible to play for a money value, but it's not recommended to play for money per hole, it's better to play for an agreed-upon amount for the whole round.

Long Game
If a golfer hit the golf ball over 180 yards within his game, long game is the designation for this performance.

Long Irons
Long irons are irons with a long shaft and for that reason they are harder to play. The irons one to four drop in this category.

Long Putter
A putter with a very long shaft therefore is called long putter. In general, its shaft-length is about 50 inches or even more. A common behavior in connection with the putter is to anchor the upper end of the putter at a golfers' chin, sternum or chest and therefore gaining more stability within the stroke. Golf players who struggle with yips often prefer the long putter because it curbs the shake motion. Controversial discussions about the process of anchoring the long putter resulted in a rule change. Accordingly the anchoring is prohibited as of the date of January the 1, 2016. A commonly known synonym for the long putter is broomstick putter.

Looking Up
In case a golfer is looking up, this designates to a premature of their head in order to follow the trajectory of the golf ball. As a result, the movement raises the swing center and furthermore it often has the consequence of an incorrect ball striking.

Loop
The 18 holes around the golf course are called loop. The term is usually especially used by club caddies, if they express how many times they worked, thus went around the golf course, in a certain period of time. In case a golf player for example tells he made two loops in one day, it means he first carried one golfers' bag, and after completion of the golf course a second ones around the whole golf course. For that reason the caddying is occasionally called looping.

Looping
A vernacular expression for caddying is looping. The slang term has its origin in the word loop, which is most commonly used by caddies in order to describe the circuit around the golf course. The 18-hole rounds he caddied, can synonymously be called loops and hence the caddying he did during one day can automatically be called looping.

Loose Impediment
Loose, natural objects at the golf course are called loose impediments or in singular loose impediment. These are for example pebbles, leaves, twigs, branches, and also dung, worms and insects. On the putting green sand and loose soil are also counted as loose impediments. Golfers are allowed to call snow and natural ice either as casual water or as loose impediments. The speciality about the loose impediments is, that they can usually be moved without penalty. The exception for that particular rule is, if the golf ball and the loose impediment are both in the hazard. Within the rules of golf, the loose impediments and the behavior of golfers toward them is exactly described in Rule 23.

Loosened Grip
In case a golf player opens his fingers while he holds the golf club, this process is called loosened grip. Within the procedure the golfer loses control of the club and in case it happens at top of his backswing, a synonym for the term can be playing the flute.

Lost Ball
If a golf ball can't be located after a stroke during the play, it is defined as lost ball. Usually playing with two golf balls is not allowed, but according to the etiquette a lost ball can be replaced by a provisional golf ball, in order to save time and guarantee a fluent game.

Low Ball-High Ball
A particular betting game in golf is called low ball-high ball. The basic structure is, that there are two two-person teams competing against each other. As the name allows to expect, the two lowest and the two highest scores are compared at each hole. The better team in variation gains the point per hole. As an example, in case one team strokes a score of four and five, but the other team a score of three and six, the second team earns the point for the lowest score, whereas the first team earns the point for the highest score.

Low Putts
Low Putts is the designation for a side bet among golfers, but it can also be played as tournament or competition format. Within the low putt tournament format, only the putts count during the round, and not the strokes. The winner is the golfer who shot the lowest putt-score. During the low putts side game, the basic structure is the same. There are usually four golfers either playing a round in stroke play fashion, or with concurrently running side bets. And to any of those the low putts side bet can be added smoothly. Prior the round, the value of the bet needs to be clarified. After the round, each golfer counts his putts and the one with the lowest used putts wins the bet – or, if agreed upon, he wins the pot.

Low Side
The term low side refers to the downhill edge of a hole. The low side arises, if a golf hole is located in a slant and therefore has an uphill and a downhill edge. The uphill edge is known as high side and the golf ball generally breaks from that side.

LPGA
LPGA is the abbreviation for Ladies Professional Golf Association, which is the American organization for the women golfers who play professional golf, founded in 1968. It is most commonly known as operator of the particular “LPGA Tour” and this is the most significant women's golf tour for professional women golfers all around the world.

Luck of the Draw
Luck of the Draw is a commonly known golf betting game in golf. It is basically designed for a group of four golfers who are playing in foursome fashion. Furthermore the general structure combines golf as well as poker. The round starts with a full deck of playing cards per foursome, and each golfer needs to pay his share of the pot. In the round, the cards are dealt out consistently depending on the score. In case one golfer made par, he gains one card, if he made a birdie he earns two cards and for an eagle he receives three new cards. In the end, after the completion of all 18 holes, the golf player with the best 5-card poker is the winner and therefore earns the pot. In case more teams are participating the pot can also be split up.

Lucy
A mis-hit, in which the golf club is shot with the hosel, thus with the connection of shaft and clubface. As it also happens to professional golfers, this mis-hit is classified as the worst shot in golf. Furthermore it is also called shank or socket.

Lunch Ball
During private rounds, charity or playday tournaments, a do-over can be permitted. This is called the “lunch ball”. The lunch ball is not legal after the rules of golf, because it is a do-over without any penalty. The lunch ball is also known as mulligan, mullie or sunday ball.

M

Made cut did not finish (MDF)
Made cut did not finish or its abbreviation MDF is used within the PGA Tour. Within the PGA Tour, in order to reduce the field, a cut is made after the second round, thus after 36 holes. There are usually the top half golfers and ties. After 54 holes a second cut can be performed, in order to reduce the field again. In case a golf player made the 36-hole cut, but afterwards missed the secondary cut, is designated as MDF player.

Majors
The four most prestigious golf tournaments of the year are called majors. Those are the US-Masters, the US-Open, the British Open, the US-PGA-Championship within the men's golf tournament. The women's major championships are at the moment the Kraft Nabisco Championship, the LPGA Championship, the U.S. Women's Open and the Evian Championship.

Make the cut
A lot of golf tournaments reduce the field with a so-called cut. In there, the top 70 golfers plus ties are selected and are allowed to move forward. The worser golf players need to go home. The cut usually takes place after two full rounds, thus after the 36th hole. Sometimes a second cut also takes place in order to reduce the field again, this one is made after the third round, meaning after hole 54. The expression make the cut refers to a golfer, who counts to the better players within the field, and is allowed to continue playing after the cut until the end of the tournament - thus he has the possibility to win the tournament.

Mallet
A special variation of putters is designed based on the model of a mallet – hence those putters are also designated with the term mallet.

Maltby Playability Factor (MPF)
Ralph Maltby, a golf club designer, invented a particular rating system called Maltby Playability Factor, abbreviated with MPF. Its main focus is on the ranking of golf clubs with regard on how simple or difficult they are for the different competences of golf players. The MPF plots the different golf clubs along a scale from the one which is simplest playable, or rather most forgiving to the golf club which is the most difficult to play, or rather least forgiving. In fact, there are six different categories, called Ultra Game Improvement, Super Game Improvement, Game Improvement, Conventional, Classic and Player Classic. As the MPF rating is sometimes modified, the latest version can always be downloaded at the website of Ralph Maltby.

MAP
The common abbreviation for minimum adversed price is MAP. The minimum adversed price is the price manufacturers suggest for their products, and retailers can adverse with those prizes. In fact, retailers are allowed to sell the products even cheaper, but they aren't allowed to advertise any price lower. Sometimes manufacturers also give a MSRP, which means manufacturer's suggested retail price instead of or along with the MAP, but the MAP is usually lower than the MSRP.

Maraging Steel
As maraging steel is a material, which is harder than traditional steel, it doesn't only exist in golf. But in there, it was used as clubface material in the early 2000s, because with this material the manufacturers could save weight. It was most commonly used for producing drivers and fairway woods, and sometimes also for the fabrication of irons. Meanwhile the maraging steel is not used any more, because most manufacturers changed to titanium as fabrication material.

Mark the Ball
Mark the ball, has generally two different usages in golf. On the one hand side it refers to the actual act of marking the ball by writing on it. It can be any sign, letters or word, and it is done in order to recognize and identify the golf ball. This procedure is generally practiced, if two golfers play with the same type of golf ball. It is also specified within the Rules of Golf, Rule 6-5, which says that every golf player should generally mark his golf ball for identification reasons. The other meaning of the term marking the ball is, what golf players do in order to determine the location of the golf ball prior to picking it up. Basically, this process is generally permitted on putting greens, so that the golf ball doesn't impede the following golfers shot. Additionally this type of marking the ball is sometimes also allowed in special circumstances. It is exactly prescribed, how the marking process has to take place. The ball marker, a small, flat object, has to be placed behind the golf ball before it is lifted. And if the golf ball should be placed on the ground again, it is laid down directly in front of the ball marker – in this fashion it is guaranteed, that the ball has accurately the same position as before.

Marker
The term marker has several meanings in golf. On the one hand side it is another word for ball marker and therefore a little piece, which is used to determining the location of the golf ball before it is picked up. For this purpose, the marker needs to be laid down accurately behind the golf ball, and putting the golf ball down needs to happen exactly in front of the golf ball. In this manner, the golf ball is situated at the same point as before. Furthermore, marker is also the designation for the person who has to note down the score of its competitor within a stroke play.

Markers
Markers is the designation for two items determining the frontal border of a teeing area. Synonyms for that term are tee markers, blocks or tee blocks.

Marshal
The marshal on a golf course is basically the guard of it. His exercise is for example to keep the pace of play up, to respond on questions of golf players or to patrol the golf course. Marshals are usually volunteers and they are commonly remarkable because of their marked golf carts. The golfers mainly speed up and control themselves even more, if marshals are visible. But if golf players for example don't speed up, a marshal is allowed to force them. Additional designations for the marshall are golf ranger or ranger.

Mashie
Mashie is the designation for a former golf club. Its characteristics were basically similar to those of a modern 5-iron, especially the loft and the use were most equivalent. Furthermore the mashie was wooden-shafted and produced and used pre to the 20th-century. But in fact, it is wrong to call a today's 5-iron a mashie, because they are different golf clubs.

Mashie Iron
The mashie iron was a wooden-shafted golf club. It was most commonly used in the pre-20th Century. In comparison to the modern golf clubs it mostly similar to the 4-iron.

Mashie Niblick
The mashie niblick is a former golf club. As the mashie and the mashie iron, it was also wooden-shafted and most commonly produced and used before the 20th Century. Compared to nowadays golf clubs, the “mashie niblick” is most similar to the 7-iron.

Match
A match is in golf either a medal round or a golf game between two opponents.

Match Play
Within the match play competition format, the golfers play a round in order to win individual holes against your opponents, by playing the lowest score on the hole. As the scores are permanently compared, there are additional expressions for some score results. If for example two foes won the same number of holes, this is called all square. In case one golfer won six holes, whereas the other one could only achieve five holes, the better players' score is 1-up, the worser golfers' is 1-down. Characteristically for the match play is, that it can be played either as individual participant, thus a matchplay single or in teams of two people, meaning a match play foursome. Within a match play foursome there is additionally furthermore the alternate shot fashion most commonly used. A lot of golf tournaments are also played in match play fashion.

Matchplayer
A Matchplayer is a golfer, who mainly prefers playing the game variation Match Play. Matchplayer can compete against each other within a single match play as well as in a match play foursome. In the end of the round, the winner is the Matchplayer or team with the lowest score.

MDF
The abbreviation MDF is in golf used for the term Made cut did not finish. The term is most commonly used during the PGA Tour, because in there, a cut is made. Thus after the second round the top half of golfers and ties are allowed to move forward. The other ones need to go home. Sometimes there is also a second cut made after the third round in order to reduce the field once again. The golfers who “made” the first cut, but drop out at the second cut are designated with MDF, thus they made the cut, but did not finish.

Mechanics
Mechanics is a term which can either refer to the technique of the golf swing or to the putting stroke. Golfers constantly try to improve their mechanics, because a good golf swing also influences the movement of the golf ball positively.

Medal Day
A day, at which golf players are allowed to played a medal round in a competition format is designated as medal day.

Medalist
The winner of a stroke play is designated as medalist. This term has its origin on the one hand side in there, that he earns a medal, on the other hand side another name for stroke play is medal play, hence in both variations the winner is the medalist. Sometimes there are match play tournaments, which begin with one or two rounds of stroke play. The winner of those first stroke play rounds is again called medalist. Additionally those first stroke play rounds cut down the field into the Top 64 golf players.

Medal Play
The term medal play is basically only another designation for the most commonly known stroke play. Thus it is a round of golf, in which the total number of strokes counts as score. But in fact nowadays the designation “medal play” is also used for tournaments, which firstly start with one or two rounds of medal play in order to cut down the field to the best 64 golfers who afterwards continue with match play. Additionally, the best golfer of the two stroke play rounds is designated as medalist.

Member's bounce
The member's bounce is the term for any bounce of the golf ball which is intentionally played and thereby improves a shot, that originally appeared to become an errant shot.

Miami Scramble
A variation of the scramble is the Miami Scramble. The basic structure is, that four golfers play in one team. At first, all team members tee off and the best drive is selected by the team. The golf player whose golf ball is selected has to sit out for the next stroke, whereas all the other golfers in the team stroke from the position of the selected drive. Within one variation of the Miami Scramble, it is common that the golfer with the selected drive has to sit out until the whole group reaches the putting green. In this version the rules typically specify, that the group has to use at least four drives of each team member over the 18 holes. Another variation is closer to the florida scramble variation, meaning that the selected putt golfer only has to sit out for the next stroke and after that stroke a new best shot is selected and the golf player who shot this chosen one has to sit out for the next shot. The game continues in this fashion for all holes.

Mid-amateur
The mid-amateur is a designation for a golfer, who is an competitive amateur golfer. He mainly doesn't put efforts in professional tournaments, but in fact, many of them turn professionals after their 50th birthday. Furthermore the term is also used for USGA tournaments for amateurs who are 25 and older, on national side for men and women. Additionally the term is most commonly utilized within the USA.

Mid Iron
Mid iron was the term for a golf club in the past. It generally appeared in the pre-20th Century and had a wooden shaft. Meanwhile because of its loft, use and appearance it is comparable to a modern 2-iron.

Middle Irons
In golf jargon, the term middle irons refers to the iron scale: In there, it is the designation for the middle irons of the scale, thus the 5-7 irons.

Middle Wedge
A golf club, which is mainly a medal iron. Characteristically is its loft between the one of a pitching wedge and a sand wedge.

Mid Mashie
One version of historical golf clubs is called mid mashie. As the mashie it also had a wooden shaft, and was used in the pre 20th Century. In comparison to the modern golf clubs, the golf club is most similar to today's 3-irons.

Minimum adversed price
The term minimum adversed price is commonly known with its abbreviation MAP. In fact, the expression refers to a price which the manufacturers propose for their golf clubs. The retailers are allowed to adverse with those prices at minimum. That's the sting, because the retailers are allowed to sell the products even cheaper but not to make any advertisement below this limit. There is also a manufacturer's suggested retail price, short MSRP, which some manufacturers present instead or along with the minimum adversed price. The MAP is generally lower than the MSRP.

Misread
When used in golf, the term misread refers to the defective estimation of the putting line.

Miss the Cut/Missed Cut (MC)
In golf tournaments it is a common procedure to cut the field in two halves after the second round, thus after 36 holes. The better half is allowed to move forward, whereas the other half has to go home. In case there is only one cut, and the golfer is in the worser half, he is said to miss the cut or designated with MC. Since 2008, there is a further expression if there are two cuts and a golfer made the first cut, but missed the second one: the designation is then made cut did not finish, or MDF.

Mixed
The term mixed refers to mixed genders in a team, meaning both genders, men and women in one team. There are also special tournament formats, which are specialized on a mixed format, thus in there it is not allowed to play with the same gender in one team.

Mixed Foursome
The mixed foursome is a special alternate-shot format, in which it is only allowed to play with both genders in one team. Thus in fact there are two teams playing in the foursome format, but each team is composed of one man and one woman.

Modern Takeaway
Modern takeaway is a golf jargon designation. It generally describes the hands, arms and wrists of a golf player moving away from the golf ball at the beginning of the backswing. Within this procedure, the involved parts of the body always maintain the same relationship as during the address. Another designation for the “modern takeaway” is one-piece takeaway.

Modified Pinehurst
Modified Pinehurst is the designation for a particular golf competition format. The basic structure is, that four golfers play in two teams. At first, each golfer tees off with his own golf ball, and afterwards each team selects the best drive, because the teams then moves forward in alternate-shot fashion with this best ball until it's holed out. This procedure is repeated, until the end of the game. A speciality about the match format is, that it can be either played as match play or as stroke play. Furthermore tournament format is also known as greensomes, Scotch Foursomes or Canadian Foursomes.

Modified Stableford
The modified stableford is a competition format, with a particular scoring system. In there, the points are awarded with regard on the golfers' performance per hole and penalties per hole. It is the tournament committees definition, how exactly the points are awarded. But as an example, within The International, a former PGA Tour event, a double eagle brought eight points, an eagle five points, and a birdie two points. In case a golfer made par on a hole he neither received points, nor got a penalty. But if he shot a bogey, he received a penalty by subtracting one point, and with score of a double bogey or worser the golf player lost three points. The format can either be played with or without the use of the handicaps.

Moment of Inertia
The term moment of inertia, short MOI, has in fact two different meanings. Because it can refer to the resistance of clubheads to twist around the axis. On the other hand it can also refer to golf balls or shafts, for the same reason, thus the resistance of them to twisting around the axis. In reference to the clubhead, a higher moment of inertia will be more resistant to twist, then a clubhead with a lower MOI. Thus a high MOI also reduces the impact of mis-hits, because the influence of mis-hits for the shot is decreased. Therefore manufacturers meanwhile advert their clubs as being more forgiving, and that includes a high MOI. In fact, for golf players with a high handicap it is therefore recommended to buy a golf club with a higher MOI.

Monday Qualifying
Monday qualifying or Monday qualifier refers to a qualifying tournament. It is played before every pro tour event, and awarded by the places of the tour event, thus it is the determination of who is permitted to play in the tournament. It is usually composed as a stroke play because the following tournament is usually played in match play fashion. In there, a round of 18 holes is played and it takes place on the Monday in the tournament week, therefore it earned its name. Open qualifiers or Event qualifiers are common synonyms for the Monday qualifier.

Money Ball
A particular competition format is called money ball. In there, groups with four golfers in every team play against each other. The first step within the game is, that all members tee off. In order to create a team score, two of those four scores are putt together and become the team score. The two scores consist of the money ball player who was determined before and the lowest score among the other three scores. Within the game, the onus of the money ball rotates, so that every golfer in the team has to take the responsibility for some holes. There are even more variations of the money ball, and individual ones can also be made. lone ranger, pink ball, yellow ball, pink lady or devil ball are further synonyms for the competition format.

Motor-caddy
A particular devise, as the name says it is a caddy for transporting a golfers bag. It differentiates from traditional caddies as it is usually battery-powered and most commonly it is controlled with a remote.

Mouth Wedge
In golf jargon, mouth wedge refers to a golfer who doesn't stop talking at the whole round. Therefore he can influence another golfers game and is said to have a large mouth wedge. Furthermore mouth wedge is also an expression for golf players who always talk about their excellent golf skills which are actually poor ones.

Movable Obstruction
The opposite of an immovable obstruction is a movable obstruction. A obstacle counts as movable, if it can be moved and thereby doesn't unduly delay the play, cause any damage or requires unreasonable effort. In case such a movable obstruction influences the swing or the stance of a golfer or his golf ball is in or on the golf ball, the obstruction can be moved without penalty. Within the Rules of Golf, the “movable obstructions” and the behavior with them can be found in Rule 24.

Moving Day
In case a golf tournament lasts four days, the third and therefore the second last day is called Moving Day.

MSRP
The manufacturer's suggested retail price, short MSRP is the proposed price for an object. The manufacturer suggested it to the retailer, but in fact, the retailer can anyways set the price he wants to, thus it is not obligatory the price the costumers will see in the shops. Including the MSRP in the prices gives the costumers the ability to compare the prices and have and idea about the prices, thus it is a welcome procedure.

Mud ball
A golf ball is designated as mud ball, if it has soil, mud, or any type of dirt at its surface. This can affect the flight enormously, but usually cleaning the golf ball without penalty is only allowed at the putting green. But during extraordinary weather conditions an exception may be stated within the local rules.

Mulligan
Mulligan, abbreviated with mullie, is the designation for a do-over. The legal version of the do-over, thus without penalty, can be allowed during charity tournaments, private rounds or playday tournaments. But exactly because of this exception of the penalty, it is illegal after the Rules of Golf. Synonyms for the mulligan are Sunday ball or lunch ball.

Mulligans
Mulligans is a competition format including free shots. In there, the handicaps of the golfers are converted in do-overs. The particular thing about it is, that the mulligans are not connected to any holes and can be used whenever a golfer wants to. The game can be additionally played in tandem with the handicap-strokes, but most commonly it is played with two thirds of the handicap in order to make sure the golfers are careful with using their free shots. Other designations for mulligans are Criers and Whiners, No Alibis, Wipe Out, Play it Again, Sam or Replay.

Municipal Course
A Municipal Course is a golf course, which is property of a city, country, municipality or any type of government. Characteristically for those golf courses is, that as they are property of a governmental body, they are open to all golfers. The only limitation is, that some municipal courses offer lower rates for city residents. In one area, those courses are usually lower priced than privately owned courses.

Muni
Muni is the abbreviation for municipal courses. Those courses are owned by a local government entity, meaning a city or municipality, therefore it got its name. Particular about munis is, that they are open for every golf player without restrictions and are usually the least expensive golf courses in a area. Nevertheless they are sometimes a little bit cheaper for residents of the city or the municipality which owns the golf course.

Murphy
When used in golf, the term Murphy refers to a side bet. Prior to the side bet, the group has to agree on playing Murphy, the bet amount has to be set, the area, from which a Murphy can be declared and it has to be clarified, whether the bet is automatically accepted if invoked. If all this is clarified, the bet itself can only be declared, if the golf ball is not yet on the putting green. In Murphy, a golf player bets, that he can get up and down, meaning one chip, one putt to hole out, or even a chip-in, when he chips from off the green.

Muscleback
Muscleback is in golf the designation for the particular clubhead of some irons. The irons itself are therefore also called muscleback irons. The clubheads can either be forged or casted and characteristically is their full back, and that they provide a greater feedback to a golfer but the golf player has to strike the ball with the center of the clubface by using those irons correctly. With their higher center of gravity, muscleback irons have a lower trajectory which is preferred by highly skilled golfers. Furthermore they also have a lower moment of inertia, which means lower forgiveness in comparison to cavityback irons. To summarize, the muscleback irons are more likely suitable for lower handicap golfers, because they have most commonly the skills to have greatest advantage of its characteristics.

Mutt and Jeff
As Mutt and Jeff is a comic strip focused on two buddies, a small one and a big one, the golf tournament format or side bet Mutt and Jeff does the same. It only focuses on the big and small holes, thus the par-5 holes, and the par-3 holes. The round is completed, when the net score for each golfer on all par-3 and par-5 holes is registered. The golf player with the lowest net score on those holes wins the side bet or tournament.

N

Narrow Fairway
Narrow Fairway refers to a fairway on a golf course, which hardly has a limited set of yards across.

Nassau
Nassau is a popular golf tournament format. It is called Nassau because it is apparently invented in the Nassau Country Club. In general, it consists of tree rounds, in there, the first round are the holes 1 to 9, afterwards it is the round two with holes 10 to 18, followed by a third round including all 18 holes. Usually the prizes are also awarded in this manner, thus the winner of the first nine holes gets a prize, same as the winner of the second nine and the golfer who won the whole round. As a bet it is most common, that each of the three rounds is worth $ 2. But in fact, the general surrounding of the game format, like for example whether it is played as match play or as stroke play, can be clarified individually before the game starts. In case on golfer or a whole team falls behind, they can press the bet, with that point, a new bet begins, it is kind of the fourth bet. The other side does not have to accept the bet, but usually they do. But, the other side can repress the bet and it can be double pressed and so on. With every time, the bet increases for § 2, thus the more it gets pressed, the more expensive is it and can end up with a high investment. Furthermore, the Nassau is also known as Best Nines or 2-2-2.

Nasties
Nasties is a side bet in golf. In general, it can be used by a group of golfers, no matter, how big the group is. The Nasty is basically about holing out from anywhere off the green, thus it can be with an approach shot, a bunker shot, a pitch shot or even a hole-in-one. It is important to clarify prior to the start, which value a Nasty has, and whether the side bet is even used within the game. A more popular name for Nasties might be its synonym Uglies.

Nationwide Tour
The famous Web.com Tour changed its name a few times. As From the beginning 1990 on it was named Ben Hogan Tour, after three seasons it got renamed a few times until, in 2003 it received its name Nationwide Tour for 9,5 seasons. Finally, in 2012, the tour obtained the meanwhile familiar name Web.com Tour.

Nearest Point of Relief
In case, a golf ball fell in or on an immovable obstruction, lies in abnormal ground conditions or is situated on the incorrect putting green, a golf player is permitted to drop the golf ball without penalty. The procedure has to take place within the length of a golf club of the nearest point of relief, so that afterwards the golfer is able to play the golf ball without any obstruction but the golf ball isn't situated nearer to the cup. Furthermore the nearest point of relief is also called closest point of relief.

Net
The net score, or short net is the resulting score of a golfer's round with the consideration of his handicap. Thus the net score indicates the gross score with the subtracted handicap strokes. As an example, if a golfer's gross score within one round was 100, and the golfer's handicap is 36, his net score is 64. The opposite of the net score is the gross score.

Niblick
Niblick is the designation for a further golf club. It was used before the 20th Century and characteristically for the niblick was its wooden shaft. In comparison to today's golf club it is most similar to a 9-iron.

Nicklauses
A side bet in golf is called Nicklauses. It is named after the golfer Jack Nicklaus, who was famous for his powerful drives. Therefore, the winner of the bet is in general the golfer in a group who hit the longest drive on each hole. It is important to clarify prior to the play, whether the bet is in use or not, and if it is, which amount it has. Additional specifications can be, that for winning the bet, long drives has to be in the fairway, and subsequently to that, if no golf player shot his golf ball to the fairway, the bet and its pot are carried over to the next hole, and therefore added up at the hole's pot. Meanwhile the bet is synonymously called after Tiger Woods (Tigers), after John Daly (Dalys) or after Bubba Watson (Bubbas).

Nike Tour
From 1993 until 1999, today's Web.com Tour was called Nike Tour. The name appeared, because Nike, Inc. was the biggest sponsor of the tour in this time period. After further changes of the name, from June 2012 on, the tour got renamed in Web.com Tour.

Nine-iron
The so-called Nine-iron is a golf club with the highest loft of all irons. The Nine-iron is a golf club which is used for shots with short-distances.

Nine Points
A particular golf format is called nine points. It is basically invented for groups of three golfers and the general structure is, that at stake nine points per hole are reachable. The three golfers are separated in the best score, the middle score and the high score at each cup and therefore they receive points in a prescribed order. The golfer with the best score earns five points, the golf player with the middle score gets three points, whereas the golf player with the highest score on a hole earns one point. If two golfers stroke a tie, at the middle score, so that one golfer still has the best score, the best scorer receives five points, and each of the other two golf players earns two points. If it is the other way round, that two golfers stroke a tie at the best score and one golfer shot the high score, he earns one point, whereas the two tie players receive four points each. In case all three players tied, the nine points are split, thus each golfer earns three points.

Nines
The expression nines is basically only an abbreviation for the golf format nine points. Therefore it refers to a game for groups of three golf players. It received its name, because there are nine points per cup reachable, which are split in the three golfers in a prescribes order. Thus the lowest scorer at a hole earns five points, the golfer who stroke the middle score receives three points and the highest scorer at an individual hole gets one point. In case the golfers all stroke a tie, each player receives three points for that hole. If two golf players shot a tie at the best score at a hole, they both get four points and the third golfer with the highest score earns one point. And in case two golfers made a tie at a hole for the lower score, the best scorer receives five points and the other golf players get two points each.

Nineteenth Hole
In general golfers designate the clubhouse as 19th hole. The group which played the round together goes to the bar or lounge in the clubhouse after the 18th hole, thus after finishing the round.

No Alibis
A competition format which includes do-overs, so-called mulligans, is called No Alibis. Characteristically for the game is, that the handicaps of the golf players are transformed into free shots. And additionally there is no strict regulation about where the do-overs have to be used, thus the golf players can use them whenever they want to. Furthermore the format can also be played including full or partly handicap strokes, and therefore it is usually played with two thirds of the handicap-strokes. Further expressions for No Alibis are Mulligans, Wipe Out, Replay, Play it Again, Sam or Criers and Whiners.

Nobble
In golf, the term nobble refers to the procedure of either topping a golf ball or catching it on the upper half. This causes the so-called Nobbler shot, which is a weak and at the same time low running shot.

No Card (NC)
In case a golfer doesn't submit a scorecard after a round, he is registered as No Card, or short NC for those 18 holes. The only exception for that is, if the golf player resigned because of a injury.

Non-Selective Perimeter Weighting
A clubhead is designated as non-selective perimeter weighting, if it has an equal weight over toe and heel of a club head.

No Putts
No Putts is the expression for a particular golf game. It can be either played as tournament format or in a group of golf players. The general structure in no putts is, that putts don't count. Thus all strokes, instead of putts, during the round are ranked. In order figure out the final score without putts, the putts are noted at the scorecard and subtracted from the final score. The golf player with the lowest remaining stroke score wins the golf tournament. A further synonym for no putts is Everything but Putts.

N.O.S.E. Tournament
Within a N.O.S.E. tournament only scores of the holes which begin with one of those letters count. The golf players firstly play the full round, but in the end only the N.O.S.E. holes count to the final score, meaning only nine holes, hole one, six, seven, eight, nine, eleven, sixteen, seventeen and eighteen count. Sometimes the side bet “low putts” is additionally used in order to avoid ties.

Nutted
In case a golfer hit his golf ball exactly on the sweetspot, this is called nutted in slang term.

O

Observer
When used in golf, the term observer refers to a person whose job it is to make sure that a match or round is played pursuant to the Rules of Golf.

Obstacle Stroke Value
Obstacle stroke value is a designation used within the handicap system of the USGA. It is basically a numerical statement of the playability and difficulty of obstacles or hazards at an individual golf course, like for instance bunkers, water or trees. The United States Golf Association designates those obstacles and hazards as obstacle factors and classifies them in order to create the obstacle stroke value. Within the categorization, the USGA also considers the psychological effect, meaning how the feeling of the golfer in prior to the shot is. The value is important for the regulation of the course and slope rating.

Obstruction
Obstruction is the designation for any factitiously item on a golf course. Objects on a golf course, that intentionally designate any part at the golf course don't count as obstruction. But among obstructions there is the differentiation between movable obstructions and immovable obstructions, and with differentiation there is also a different handling in relation with them. How to deal with each of them properly is defined within Rule 24 of the Rules of Golf as well as the official definition of obstructions.

Odds and Evens
A particular golf game format is called Odds and Evens. In there, the basic structure prescribes a two person team and the golf partners hit one golf ball in alternate shot style. In contrast to the alternate shot format, where tee players simply tee off alternately, at odds and evens one golfer tees off at every odd hole, whereas the other one tees off at even holes. The golf player who has to tee off at the first hole, thus the first odd hole, is designated by a random method.

Off-Green Putting
In case a golfer decides to putt a golf ball off the putting green, instead of chipping it, this is designated as off-green putting.

Offset
A particular conception characteristic of some golf clubs is the offset. It partially occurs in irons, woods or hybrid golf clubs. In case the leading edge of the clubface lays behind the hosel, this is the offset, thus in a line the clubhead is located behind the shaft. The offset golf clubs are generally recommended to golfers who slice. Furthermore the amount of the offset golf clubs vary, so golfers can individually decide which one fits the best for their swing characteristics.

Off the deck
When used in golf, off the deck is the designation for a procedure, where a golfer doesn't hit a drive off a tee, but off the fairway or ground.

One Club
One Club is a well-known golf game in general used as match among friends, but sometimes it is also a tournament format. The basic structure of the game is already explained with its name, because in there you are allowed to only use one single golf club all over the round. If the game is in use within a golf tournament, it can either be prescribed which golf club it has to be, or it is the golfer's individual decision. Within a golf match between buddies, the golfers most commonly chose individually which golf club will be their one club. The biggest advantage of the game is, that a golfer exercises himself because of this challenge. Usually the 5-iron or the 6-iron are selected for the game, because their prerequisites fit the best.

One Person Captain's Choice
Within a One Person Captain's Choice, there is only one golfer in each team. The basic structure is, that this one golfer is allowed to stroke twice every time, thus to tee off two times directly one after another, afterwards he decides which drive was the better one and hits the second shot again with both golf balls consecutively, but both from the further best position and so on. As this game variation can take a lot of time, a further specification is, that the golf player only tees off once, if the first drive was a good one.

One-Piece Takeaway
The One-Piece Takeaway describes a movement, at the beginning of the backswing, in which hands, wrists and arms go away from the golf ball, but preserve the equal relation they had prior to the start of the activity, thus at the address.

One Putt
If a golf player only used one putt, but nevertheless holed out, this procedure is called one putt.

On the charge
If a golfer asserts himself within the final round of a stroke play by constantly scoring birdies, he is designated to be on the charge.

On the Dance Floor
A golf ball is said to be on the dance floor in golf slang, when he stayed on the green.

On the screws
“On the screws” is a term in golf jargon, meaning the golf club hits the golf ball exactly on the sweetspot. The expression is most commonly used for woods or drivers.

Oozles and Foozles
Oozles and Foozles is a side bet in golf. Oozle is a success, foozle is a failure. It is most commonly played on par-3 holes. There are three different versions of playing the bet. Prior to the start of the round, it has to be agreed-upon, which value it has. In the first version at a par-3 hole, the golfer who is closest to the pin after the tee shot earns the oozle and wins the bet value – but in order to win that, the regulation is, that the tee shot has to arrive on the putting green or even hole out. The golfer who has to putt three times, failed and therefore receives the foozle and loses the betting unit. This process is repeated at every hole and if no golf player made it on the green, the bet is taken over and added up at the next hole. Within the second side bet version, the player who shot closest to the pin at a par-3 hole wins the oozle, but in case he 3-putts, he loses it and receives the foozle. The third variation defines, that in case all golf players of the group want to do so, they are permitted to play the game at every hole and not only at the par-3 holes. As there are longer holes in play, the golfer who plays closest to the pin even on the green in regulation already earns the oozle. Oozles and Foozles is obviously also playable in combination with various golf formats or side bets.

Oozlum
The Oozlum is a version of funnies. It is played on par-3 holes and the target is to reach the green in regulation in one shot and afterwards uses only one or two putts. If he is in a tie with par or even better, he wins the Oozlum. In case more than one golfer managed to do so, the winner is who was closest to the pin after the tee off, and if no golf player wins, the bet is carried over to the following par-3 hole and doubles the amount of this next hole.

Open
In golf, the term open designates tournaments which are generally open to all golf players and don't restrict groups of golfers, not like for example only golfers who received an invitation are allowed to play. But in fact, as Opens are also sometimes professional tournaments and high-level amateur tournaments, even there is an exception, so that they have eligibility requirements like for instance a maximum handicap index. Sometimes qualifying tournaments are required prior to an Open. The origin of the term was the first Open Championship in 1860, which was truly open to any professional or amateur golfer who payed the entry fee and traveled to the tournament.

Open Clubface
The position of the clubface in relation to the target line at the point the golf club strikes the golf ball, thus at impact, is either called open clubface or open face. In the ideal situation the clubface is square, thus in a 90 degree angle, to the target line. But it is more than 90 degrees at the open clubface. Thus, the toe of the golf club is revolved a little backwards, therefore, at impact, the heel of the club arrives earlier at the golf ball as the toe does. This open face often causes a slice or a push, and therefore highly skilled golfers sometimes play with an open clubface on purpose, in order to hit a slice. The opposite of this clubface position is the closed face.

Open Grip
A variation of gripping the golf club is the open grip. In there, both hands, at the center of the grip, are positioned to the left. Characteristically is, that the open grip creates a fade, and additionally it can stop golfers from hitting to excessively from inside and under. Furthermore, this grip is more commonly known as weak grip.

Open Stance
Open Stance is the designation for a golfers' stance, where the leading foot is moved backwards, so that it is situated farther away from the target line than the usual rear foot. The Open Stance is practiced in order to support a left-to-right trajectory.

Open-to-Closed
Open-to-Closed is a motion of the clubface. In there, the golfer opens the clubface during the backswing, but closed it at impact.

Open qualifiers
Open qualifiers is a term for an entitling tournament. It is performed prior to the pro tour events and embodies the qualification for the tour event. As the pro tour is played in match play format, the tournament is usually organized as regular stroke play round. Furthermore, the open qualifiers is also known as event qualifiers or, as it is proceeded on Monday in the tournament week, as Monday qualifying.

Opposite-Field Tournament
In case there are two tournaments at the same day and time within a pro golf tour, the field is separated in the higher level golfers who play at one event, and the weaker field which plays at the lesser tournament. This lesser tournament is called opposite-field tournament as the field in there plays oppositely to the bigger tournament. The opposite-field tournament is for example created by the PGA Tour, if they have the feeling a lot of their top golfers won't qualify for the British Open in order to provide a chance to receive money and points.

Order of Play
The order of play is what it sounds like. It is the designation who is allowed to stroke first and who plays afterwards, often also designated as who has the honor to stroke first. Within the Rules of Golf, the order of play is regulated in Rule 10. In a match play, it is usual, that, at the first teeing ground, a draw or a lot decides who plays first. Afterwards, at the second shot and the following shots, the specification is, that whose golf ball is farther from the cup, has the honor to play first. And if both golf balls have the same distance to the hole, it is – as in the beginning – decided by draw or lot. The side who wins the hole, is allowed to stroke first at the subsequent hole. In case the sides scored a tie at a hole, the golfer who had just had the honor takes it over and is again allowed to play first. Within a stroke play, the order of play is determined – same as in a match play – by the draw or by lot. The golfer who won the hole has the honor at the next hole and in case two golfers had the same score, the previous order of play is carried over. During the play of a hole, the golf ball which lies farthest to the hole, has to be played first.

Ostrich
The expression Ostrich refers to a tremendous phenomenon in golf. In fact, it is a score five under par. This is only possible by stroking a hole-in-one at a par-6 hole, and for that reason the Ostrich is so unusual.

Out
The term out has several meanings in golf. On the one hand side it is used for the golf ball which is farthest away from the hole. The golf player who owns this golf ball, is also the one who's allowed to stroke first according to the golf etiquette. This meaning of the expression out is additionally also known as away. Furthermore, the other meaning of out is, that it designates the first nine holes of a golf course, thus the front nine. As out is a short expression, it is often noted at scorecards. The opposite of out in this variation is in.

Out-of-Bounds
Out of Bounds, or its abbreviation OB refers to the range which is outside the golf course, meaning where playing golf is not allowed any more. The committee designates this area exactly, often by using stakes or a barriers which need to be fixed, so that they can not be removed during the game. Whatever designates the OB, the inmost part of it is already called out of bounds. Thus, in case a golf ball is completely outside the limitation, it is also said to be out of bounds. Within the Rule of Golf, out of bounds is defined in Rule 27.

Out of Turn
Playing out of turn refers to the order of play. In case a golfer strokes, even if it wasn't his turn but the turn of his opponent, this is designated as out of turn. In a match play there is no penalty for this procedure, but the opponent can instantly demand the golfer to cancel the stroke and replay the golf ball at the same location where the ball was played before. In a stroke play format this is not usual, but in case the tournament committee notices, that any golfers have agreed-upon on playing out of turn in order to advantage one of the players, all concerned golf players are disqualified.

Outside
A golf ball can said to be outside, if it is the remotest from the cup. In case it has this position, the golfer who owns the golf ball is allowed to play first towards the hole. On the other hand side, in case the golf ball is on the other side of the target line, it is also said to be outside.

Outside Agency
Everything, a person or an object, that isn't part of a current golf match is an outside agency. Spectators are an example of the outside agency.

Outside-to-In
The term Outside-to-In refers to a swing path, in which the clubhead approaches the golf ball from outside the target line and its trajectory goes to the inside the line, hence the name outside-to-in.

Outward Half
The outward half are the first nine holes of an 18-hole golf course, thus the holes 1-9. Other designations for those holes are for example front nine or outward nine, whereas the opposite of it is designated as inward half, back nine or inward nine.

Outward nine
The holes 1-9 of an 18-hole golf course are often designated as outward nine. Further terms describing this half of the golf course are outward half or front nine. By contrast, the holes 10-18 are for example called inward half or back nine.

Overclub
Overclub or Over Clubbing are designations for a rather bad choice in golf. In there, the golfer used a golf club for a stroke which caused the golf ball to make a higher distance than it needed to and thereby often goes over the green.

Overlapping Grip
The overlapping grip is a golf grip which is probably the most common golf grip among pro golfers. It consists of positioning the hands on the golf club so that the little finger of one the bottom hand lies either on the index finger of the top hand or between the index and the middle finger of this hand. Vardon Grip can be used synonymously for overlapping grip.

Over Par
If a score on an individual hole or rather on a complete round is higher than the given par on it, this score is designated to be over par. It is common to speak of over par in relation to par, meaning in case the score was one stroke greater than par, it is said to be 1-over par, if it is two strokes higher than par, it is also said and denoted to be 2-over par and so forth.

Overseeding
A particular maintenance process on golf courses is called overseeding. In there, the seeds of the grass are distributed all over the already existing grass. Thereby one type of grass gets replaced with another one. This is usually done in order to advance a new growth and for seasonal turf types. Overseeding helps to keep the golf course available for golfers to play on in any season of the year.

OWGR
OWGR is the abbreviation for Official World Golf Ranking. As the name says, it designates the world ranking in golf. Most commonly the term OWGR is written in combination with a number and this number shows the current position of the golfer within the ranking list.

P

Pace
Pace is either the designation for the speed of the golf swing or for the speed of the green itself.

Paddle Grip
The paddle grip is a particular putting grip. Characteristically is, that it has a flat surface for the thumbs of the golfer.

Pairings
The term pairings refers to groups with two golfers in it.

Par
The term par has a particular importance in golf. It describes the number of shot a expert golfer needs. It can either refer to a particular hole, or to the whole golf course. The par for a hole always consists of a number of shots which an expert golfer would need in order to reach the green and two putts at the putting green to reach the hole. The holes are individually designated as par-3, par-4, par-5 or par-6 holes, depending on the number of strokes an expert golfer would need. A par-3 hole is following the one where he'd only need three strokes for holing out, at a par-6 hole he'd need six strokes. The par for the entire round is simply the added up number of all hole par's. At an 18-hole golf course it is usually a par between 69 and 74, most commonly par-72. Additionally par is used in order to describe the golfers performance on a hole or in a round, thus he can either strike under par, even par or over par.

Par in
Par in is a golf term for describing that a golfer has to score par on all remaining holes.

Par-3 Hole
A par 3 hole is one, at which an expert golfer only needs 3 strokes to hole out. As there are always two putts included at the par of a hole, the expert golfer would only need one stroke to reach the green and two putts to hole out. After the offered guidelines of the USGA, the par-3 holes for men are up to 250 yards long, whereas the ones for women are up to 210 yards in length, but there are no specifications concerning their length. Within an 18 hole golf course there are usually two to six par-3 holes, most commonly it is four, thus two in the front nine and two in the back nine holes.

Par-4 Hole
Par-4 holes are the ones for which an expert golfer usually needs four strokes in total, meaning two shots for reaching the green and two putts at the putting green for holing out. In length those holes are not specified, but after the USGA guidelines they can be 251 to 470 yards long and for women 211 to 400 yards. There are most commonly ten par-4 holes at a 18-hole golf course.

Par-5 Hole
Par-5 holes are holes, at which an expert golfer needs five shots to hole out. That means he needs 3 strokes to reach the putting green and two putts for holing out. As there are no rules about the length of golf holes, but the USGA guidelines propose a length of 471 up to 690 yards for men and 401 to 575 yards for women. As par-6 holes are rather rare, the par-5 holes are most commonly the longest holes at 18-hole golf courses. There are mostly often four par-5 holes at the standard golf courses.

Par-6 Hole
The longest holes at a golf course are par-6 holes, but also the most uncommon ones. In order to hole out, an expert golfer would need six strokes at a par-6 hole, thus four of them to reach the putting green and two putts for holing out. After the USGA guidelines, those holes have a distance from over 690 yards for men, and 575 yards for women.

Parkland-Course
Parkland course is the designation for a golf course with a park-like design. Thus powerful green fairways, fast greens and plenty of trees. A lot of PGA – and european tour courses are parkland courses. The Augusta National Golf Club is probably the most famous example for this course design.

Par Is Your Partner
Par Is Your Partner is a specification in some golf tournaments, limiting a golfer's or the team's maximum score per hole to a net par in order to save time. Thus in case the golfer or team can not beat the net par score any more, they pick up the golf ball and move on at the next hole. Par Is Your Partner is usually played in a stroke play with using handicaps, but it is differenced by using full or only partial handicaps. Furthermore a particular point system can also be in use instead of the stroke play format.

Par 3 Course
A particular golf course design consisting only of par-3 holes is called par 3 course. It is most commonly nine holes in full length and is often played by golf beginners as well as by skilled golfers. The par 3 courses are famous as they are a great option on training the short game, playing a fast round or for beginners in order to work on everything in a smaller surrounding.

Par or Out
A golf game or side bet for low handicappers is called par or out. It can be either played in a tournament or among a group of golfers. In case a golfer made a bogey or worse, he drops out. The winner is, who scored par or better at each hole. Usually handicaps are used, because if not, the golfers who play par or out need to be very high skilled. In case it is a side bet, the golfer who goes the longest without making a bogey or worse is the winner of the bet.

Partner
In case golfers play together on the same side in the same group, they are designated as partners.

Path
The path is the golf term for describing the direction the golf club travels in the moment of the swing or putt.

Payne Steward Award
The Payne Steward Award is named after Payne Steward, an 11-time winner on the PGA tour who died 1999. It is annually awarded by the PGA Tour to a PGA member to honor the member for his engagement about work and tradition in golf. Thus in order to receive the award, the golf player doesn't have to currently play as an active golfer on the PGA tour. The award started in 2000 and it consists of a trophy, which is a sculpture of Steward, and a charity price in the amount of $ 300,000. The recipient can chose which charity and which charities associated with Steward will receive the money.

Pebble Beach Golf Links
The Pebble Beach Golf Links is one of the most popular 18-hole golf courses in the world. It is located in Pebble Beach, Peninsula, looking over the Pacific Ocean. The AT&T Pebble Beach National Pro-Am on the PGA Tour is annually hosted in there, as same as major tournaments like the U.S. Open.

Peeking
When used in golf, the expression peeking refers to a golfer who looks up before the impact because in order to observe the shot. The term is most commonly used in association with short putts.

Peg
Peg is a synonym for tee. It is a little wooden or plastic tool which can be inserted in the ground in order to put the golf ball on top of it before the shot.

Penal
Penal is the designation for a particular golf hole. For scoring par, the golfer has usually no alternative than stroking predefined shots. In case the golf player fails on doing so, his golf ball will drop into severe hazards.

Penalty
In case a golfer violated against rules, lost for example a golf ball or went out of bounds, he receives a penalty. Those are extra strokes which are summed up with the current score of the golfer. It can also be called penalty stroke.

Penalty Stroke
The penalty can also be designated as penalty stroke. Thus in fact this is a stroke which is added to a golfer's score. It is done in order to punish a rule violation like for example a lost ball or taking relief from an unplayable lie.

Pendulum Stroke
A pendulum stroke is the designation for a particular put. In there, the clubhead moves without any deviance on a constant line back and forth.

Peoria System
The Peoria System is a special tournament variation, mostly used in charity events or company outings. In there, prior to the start of the tournament, the committee secretly selects six of the 18 holes, but the competitors don't know which holes. Usually those are two of every kind, thus two par-3, par-4 and par-5 holes - one of each type in the front nine and one of each type in the back nine. After the golfers played the whole round, without knowing which holes are the important ones for their score, the tournament committee announces the Peoria holes. The actual score is calculated in a predetermined way: Each golf player sums up his score of Peoria holes and multiplies the score by three, afterwards he subtracts the total par of the golf course from the result. The remaining number is again multiplied by 80 percent. The result out of this procedure is the individual “handicap allowance” of the golfer. This allowance is subtracted from the gross score of the golf player and again the remaining result is the net score of the Peoria System. Usually the competitors know the calculating system and calculate the score by themselves, but sometimes the organizers of the tournament do the calculation for each golfer.

Perfecto
A particular betting game in golf is called perfecto. In order to fulfill the requirements of a perfecto, a golfer at first has to tee off and reach the fairway with his drive, then his approach shot has to reach the green and afterwards he either has to use two putts for par or one putt for a birdie. All that has to happen on the same hole. Prior to the start, the regulations of the bet, like for example either it is only played from holes 7-9 and 16-18, or all over the round, which amount the bet has and which individual specifications the golfers want to add. As it is a demanding game, perfecto fits the best for highly skilled golfers.

Perfect round
Perfect round is a golf round of 18 holes, where the golf player scored a birdie or something better at every single hole. On an average par 72 the final score would be 54. Remarkable is, that no professional golfer has ever made a “perfect round” within a professional event.

Perimeter Weighting
The perimeter weighting refers to the distribution of weight of a golf club around the club. The perimeter weighting is most commonly proceeded at irons, but can apply at other golf clubs, too. The weight in the iron lies in outer areas of the clubhead in order to change the center of gravity position, the moment of inertia, the amount of flex and the feeling at the impact. Fulfilling all this criteria, the perimeter weighted irons are more forgiving and therefore easier to play with in opposite to the musclebacks which aren't perimeter weighted and therefore difficult to hit properly.

Persimmon
Persimmon is the term for a particular wood found in the USA. Clubheads for drivers are produced with this special wood.

PGA
PGA is the abbreviation for Professional Golfers' Association. Those are men's associations and there are several PGAs worldwide, the most famous ones are the Professional Golfers' Association of America and the Professional Golfers' Association of Great Britain and Ireland. The similar structure for women is called Ladies Professional Golf Association, abbreviated to LPGA.

PGA TOUR
PGA TOUR is the organizer of the world-famous and main professional golf tours in North America for men, like the PGA Tour, Web.com Tour, Champions Tour, and PGA Tours of Canada, China and Latinoamérica. It is important to know, that even it is called PGA TOUR, because the PGA established it, it is nowadays independent of the PGA.

Pick up
To pick up is the expression to lift the golf ball and not playing forward on a hole. There are several reasons for this procedure, like if a lot of time and strokes expired so that playing forward wouldn't be profitable and the subsequent group would have to wait.

Pick Up Sticks
A particular variation of a match play game is called Pick Up Sticks. The basic structure is, that there are two golfers playing against each other. In case a golfer wins a hole, his opponent is allowed to remove one golf club from the winner's golf bag. There can be the specification that any stick instead of the putter can be selected and removed, but it don't has to be like that. As the golf clubs with which a golfer is most comfortable will be removed first, it is a challenging and creativity demanding game.

PILS
When used in golf, PILS is an abbreviation for Pure In Line Square. This refers to a particular method of putting, in which a pendulum movement from the shoulders is implicated. As a result the golfer gets rid of an independent hand or arm motion and it helps keeping the putter square through the putt.

Pin
The exact position of the hole on the putting green is marked with the pin. Therefore it is another name for flagstick. It is basically a stick with a flag on it in order to also recognize it from the tee off area on. The pin can additionally also show the exact location of the hole within the green, thus whether it is rather in the front, in the center or in the back of it. But there is no universal regulation for the denoting, so it is an individual specification at every golf course to mark it with different colors or by putting the flag high, low or middle of the stick. It is part of the etiquette of golfing to serve the pin for other players. The official name for the pin is flagstick, but even this is sometimes also abbreviated with flag.

Pinhurst Resort
The Pinehurst Resort is a famous golf resort consisting of eight golf courses. As it is situated in the Village of Pinehurst it is called Pinehurst Resort. The most legendary one is the No. 2, which is a design of Donald Ross and already hosted a lot of U.S. Opens.

Pinhurst System
Pinehurst System refers to a team competition format. It received its name because it was invented at Pinehurst Resort. There are basically two teams and two golfers in there. Both golf players of the team first tee off. Then they both make a second stroke but use the golf ball of the other one. After the second shot they select the better ball and move forward in alternate-shot fashion with this golf ball until it's holed out. Every team repeats this procedure at every hole of the round. The golfers can decide prior to playing the game to play it in stroke play or match play format. Additionally, as Dick Chapman invented the System, it is synonymously also called Chapman System. Furthermore it is - rather rare - also called American Foursomes.

Pin-High
Pin High is an expression referring to the approach shot or rather how far it went onto the green. A pin high is a shot, where the golf ball comes to rest with the pin, thus the shot wasn't too short or too long, but in fact it can be located further away from the pin at the left or right side.

Pink Lady
Pink Lady or Pink ball is a competition format in golf. There are basically four golfers in a group and at each hole one of the golfers plays with a pink golf ball. This golfer is designated as Pink Lady. For creating the team score, two scores are added up, one of them is the score of the pink golf ball. The other score is the lowest score among the other group members. The title Pink Lady in combination with the pink golf ball changes at every hole, so that each of the four golf players in the team has to play it a few times. Further individual specifications can be agreed prior to teeing off. Additionally Pink Lady is known as money ball, lone ranger or yellow ball.

Pinnie
The pinnie or pinnies is a side bet which is - if it is in effect - automatically awarded. As there are different variations of the pinnie, it depends on what the golfers agreed-upon. On the one hand side a pinnie can either be awarded to a golf player who holes out a putt where the distance is longer than the length of the pin stick. The other variation is, that a golfer reached a pinnie, in case an approach shot reached the putting green inside the length of the flagstick. The golfers have to agree prior to the start of the game, whether pinnies are in effect, if they are, which version it is, and obviously also which amount one of them has.

Pin Placement
The Pin Placement is a term referring to the position of the cup in the putting green. Thus whether it is rather situated in the front, center, back or on the right or left side of the green. At some golf courses there are pin sheets which show the pin placement of each hole. Another synonymously expression is hole location.

Pin Sheet
A pin sheet is a paper where each putting green with the location of the flagstick is marked. There are generally only some golf courses which provide a pin sheet. With the help of a pin sheet golfers can size up their approach shots. The pin sheet is sometimes also designated as hole sheet.

Pistol Grip
A pistol grip is the designation for a particular grip which is mostly performed at putters. It is generally executed under the left hand or the top hand.

Pitch
A pitch shot, short from pitch, is a particular shot in golf. It is performed with a high lofted golf club, for example the pitching wedge, the gap wedge or the lob wedge. Characteristically for the pitch is, that it is a shot with a short distance and a steep ascent and descent and with the intention, that the golf ball is in the air most of the distance and doesn't roll far on the ground, but situates itself as quick as possible. Usually those shots are played into the green from 40 to 50 yards or closer. The pitch shot is for example often used in order to play over a nearby obstacle.

Pitch and Putt
The designation Pitch and Putt refers to a golf course which only provides very short par-3 holes. Therefore the golfer has the possibility to pitch for the shots with longer distances and putt at regular putt distances. Hence the name pitch and putt.

Pitch and Run
Pitch and Run designates a particular shot. In there, the golfer pitches the golf ball onto the green and after the golf ball reached the ground it rolls / runs towards the hole.

Pitching Niblick
A particular historical golf club is called pitching niblick. It was typically wooden-shafted, had a short shaft and was used in the beginning of the 20th Century. Because of those characteristics it was especially used for chipping and short approach shots. As it was used that way, it is the best comparable to modern wedges or a 4-iron. Furthermore the pitching niblick is also known as lofting iron or jigger.

Pitching Wedge
The pitching wedge is the golf club, with which – as the name says – pitches are usually performed. It is basically an iron providing a club face angle of 48-50 degrees. With using the pitching wedge, a golfer is capable of performing high shots with distances up to 100 meters, after which the golf ball falls down steeply and doesn't roll far on the turf.

Pitch Mark
Pitch mark is the designation for depressions or hollows on the putting surface which are caused by balls landing out of a great height. After the etiquette of golfing it is obligatory to repair pitch marks with a particular ballmark tool. Among golfers, a pitch mark is also called ball mark.

Pivot
When used in golf, the term pivot refers to the turn of the golfer's body during the golf swing. He usually rotates around an almost fixed point, most commonly his spine.

Play Club
The play club or playclub was a former golf club. It was made out of wood and used for driving. Therefore and because of its specific characteristics it is the best comparable to modern drivers and woods. The play club is sometimes written as playclub and also known as grass club.

Playing Handicap
The handicap a golfer uses during a competition is called playing handicap.

Playing the ball down
The procedure of playing the ball down is the exact opposite to improving the lie of the golf ball. This means consequently, that the golfer plays the golf ball exactly out of the position where it lies.

Play It Again, Sam
Play It Again, Sam is the name for two different competition formats in golf. On the one hand side it can refer to a competition format including mulligans, thus do-overs. In there, the handicaps of the golfers are converted into free shots and the particular regulation is, that the golf players can use those free shots whenever they desire. It can be regulated individually, whether the full or partly handicap strokes are additionally used. Besides, for this variation of Play It Again, Sam names like Mulligans, No Alibis , Criers and Whiners, Replay or Wipe Out are used as well. Within second golf game known as Play It Again, Sam the opponent can make a golfer repeat strokes. But it is important to limit the number of strokes for time reasons. Additionally it is recommended to play the game among good buddies with similar skills, because otherwise the game can obviously lose the pleasure of golfing. With regard to other golfers or groups it is furthermore significant not to play the game on a golf course which is highly frequented this day.

Play Through
Play through or playing through is a golf term which refers to the procedure of a faster golf group which is allowed to overtake a slower group. According to the etiquette of golfing, the slower golf group should offer the faster group to play through.

Plugged Ball
In case a golf ball lands and immediately rests in its own ball mark, this is designated as plugged ball. It is synonymously known as plugged lie, fried egg or buried lie.

Plugged lie
A plugged lie is the designation for a ball lie, in which the golf ball comes to rest in its own ball mark. This happens most commonly in bunkers or in soft turf. In a bunker this bad lie is also known as “fried egg” and in general the plugged lie is additionally called plugged ball or buried lie.

Plumb Bob
Plumb Bob is a designation for a particular putter grip. In there, the golfer holds the putter vertically and uses it in order to determine the perfect putting line.

Plunk
Plunk is the term for a special ball lie. In there, the ball rests on the lip of a water hazard, for example a lake.

Plus Fours
Plus fours or rather plus twos are particular trousers for golf. Characteristically is, that they end below the knee and they are combined with knee socks. It is a traditional outfit for golf players. There is a difference between plus fours and plus twos. It is, that plus fours are produced in a fuller cut and fold four inches below the knee, whereas plus twos are slimmer and only fold two inches below the knee. The American English term for those trousers is knickers.

Plus Golfer
The designation plus golfer refers to a golf player, whose handicap is extremely good. His handicap is better than 0, meaning instead of subtracting strokes, he has to add strokes to his gross score. Another term for plus golfer is plus handicap.

Plus Handicap
In case a golf player has a handicap below zero, he has to add handicap strokes to his gross score and not as usually subtracting them. Plus golfer is a synonym for plus handicap.

Poa
Poa is a type of grass, which is occasionally used as the grass on a putting green. A famous example for a golf course using poa annua is the Pebble Beach Golf Links. There are different types of poa, which are for example either suitable to putting greens or roughs. The type poa annua which is used for putting greens has the characteristic to change and grow very fast, meaning that it can for example be less smooth in the afternoon than it was before.

Polee
The term polee designates various side bets in golf. On the one hand side, it is a bet, where the bet amount has to be set before the start of the round. Afterwards, the winner of this variation of the bet is the one who gets an approach shot which reaches the green within the length of the pin stick. This bet version of the polee is a one-time-only bet, meaning in case a golfer won it, the bet is finished for this round. Within the second variation, a polee also means, that it is a continuing bet through the round. This means that every golfer who stroke an approach shot during the round and reaches the green in the length of the flagstick, wins the polee. The third version of the polee is, that every golfer who holes out a putt from a longer distance then the flagstick, wins. For each win the golfer receives a point. Whoever earned the most points at the end of the round wins the bet.

Pop
The expression pop is the golf slang term for a handicap stroke.

Pop stroke
A pop stroke is a put or stroke, which is defined by a little and abrupt hit or jiggle at the golf ball.

Pop-up
Pop-up is the designation for a high shot with a short distance. It occurs, if the clubhead hits under the ball. As it is a tee shot, which should travel for a long distance in ideal case, the pop-up is a mis-hit. Furthermore those shots often cause white scuff marks or dents in the clubheads. Those shots are synonymously called sky shots.

Postage stamp
If a putting green has a small surface area it is designated as postage stamp. Those putting greens define a demanding game and make it more complicated to reach the hole.

Pot Bunker
Characteristically for a pot bunker is, that it is round, small and at the same time very deep with extraordinary steep faces. The bunkers often occur at links courses, a famous example for pot bunkers are the British Open courses. As they are the most punishing bunkers in golf, it is extremely hard to play a golf ball out of it once it fell into the bunker. Golfers – even pro golfers – most commonly have to play the ball side- or backwards, thus away from the cup, in order to get the golf ball out of the hazard. The most dangerous pot bunkers are those, which are situated in a sloping fairway or which are not noticable from the teeing ground.

Powerball
Powerball is the expression for a particular golf tournament for groups of four golf players. In there, usually four or five holes (sometimes more) are designated as powerball holes. At each of those holes, one designated member of the group has to tee off from the forward tees. The drive of this golfer counts, no matter how good or bad it has been. In case there are four powerball holes, prior to the beginning of the round, each member is designated by the group to tee off at one of them. In case there are five holes, usually three of the four group members hit the powerball drives. The actual powerball holes are selected by the tournament organizers before the round and all golfers are informed about them before the round.

Practice Green
The practice green is a separated putting green. It is designed in order to provide golfers the opportunity of practicing their putting and short game skills.

Practice Range
A practice range is a particular area, in which the golf players can train their golf abilities by being separated from the golf course or the round. During this practice time the golfer has the possibility of correcting mistakes in swing, stance or at the impact. Most commonly, the practice range provides an open field with a teeing ground, occasionally there are also bunkers, pitching, chipping areas or even putting greens. The practice range is more commonly known as driving range or range.

Practice Round
A practice round is a golf round, with the intention, that a golfer becomes acquainted with a new golf course he never played before. Thus, as the name says it is for practicing purpose and no round in a competition.

Practice Swing
When used in golf, the designation practice swing refers to a rehearsal one. A golf player makes this swing through the air but doesn't hit the golf ball. This is either done in order to loosen up, or to get a feeling for the subsequent movements and obviously in order to make the golf swing as proper as possible.

Preferred Lies
The preferred lies are a specification in golf, in which golfers are certainly allowed to improve the location of their golf ball without any penalty. Usually the procedure signifies, that a golf player is allowed to move the golf ball for six inches in every direction they want. But preferred lies are not obligatory, thus they are a local rule mostly proceeded in winter and a golfer is only allowed to use it, in order to find a better location within a with for example patches damaged ground. The preferred lies are also known as winter rules.

Pre-shot routine
To select a fitting golf club, to position in address, to take practice swings and visualize the target line are common parts of the pre-shot routine. In fact it is every action a trained golfer regularly performs prior to the actual stroke.

Press
In case a bet is in play during a round of golf, it can be pressed. This means, that it is generally a second bet which is concurrently with the original bet. This pressed bet has most commonly the same value as the first bet had. It has to be agreed prior to the start, whether presses are used or not, and generally the system works with any bet, but its origin is the Nassau. The press can also have another meaning, namely that it is the doubling of the amount of the original bet.

Primary Cut
Primary rough or primary cut are designations for the rough with the highest and thickest and most punishing turf. Within the general structure of cuts there is the first cut of rough, this is the border to the fairway. This is occasionally followed by a second cut, which consists of turf of intermediate height lying between the first and the primary rough. The subsequent and last rough is the primary rough. Those differences between the cuts of a rough are only common at some golf courses, on the other hand side there are also courses which only have one cut of rough or no rough at all. Additionally, the primary cut can either be maintained and mowed, or can contain natural grass.

Private Course
The term private course refers to golf courses which are accessible to members only. Most commonly country clubs are private golf courses as well. Even if only members are allowed to play at private courses, it is usually nevertheless permitted to the guests of members to play there. The fee to join those golf courses is various, at some of them it involves money in an amount of hundreds of thousands dollars. At the probably most luxurious private golf course – the Augusta National Golf Club it is only possible to join if you are invited to. The money amount to join is guessed to have an enormous height because it is not even known in public and the rangefee is speculated to already cost 25.000 to 50.000 Dollar per year.

Private Lesson
When used in golf, the term private lesson refers to a golf lesson given by an PGA golf-professional to one pupil. In there, the teacher can – unlike than in a group of pupils – concentrate completely on this single person and correct the mistakes or teach new golf knowledge.

Pro
A professional, abbreviated as pro, is a golfer, who either plays or teaches golf for a monetary wage. This difference is also designated differently, this a playing pro is called touring pro, whereas a golf teacher is designated as teaching pro or club pro.

Pro-Am
A Pro-Am is a particular golf tournament. The speciality is, that in there a professional golfer and an amateur golfer build a team and play against another pairing of this structure.

Progressive Offset
The term progressive offset usually refers to sets of iron golf clubs. It basically means, that the amount of offset is different at every club. Meaning the iron-4 has less offset than the iron-5, even if they are part of the same set and so on.

Pronation
Pronation is the designation for a position, in which the golfer turns his hands inward, towards the body, whereas the palms face forward at the same time.

Pro Shop
The common designation for golf shops is pro shop. Within those pro shops which can be located at a golf course, sometimes in the clubhouse, the green fees are most commonly paid and additionally golf merchandise is for sale. As a pro shop is not obligatory the location for paying the green fee, it can also refer to a traditional shop selling golf merchandise, which is either situated on the course or off the course. On the course the products are usually more expensive, but there are often special offers with for example golf course's logos, which are nowhere else offered.

Provisional Ball
According to the etiquette of golfing a golfer is allowed to play with a provisional ball, if he thinks the ball in play is lost. Thus in case a golfer shot his drive and thinks the ball is out of bounds or lost, he can inform his fellow-competitors and tee off again with a provisional ball. But, it should be noted, that the golfer thereby has a score of three, because both tee shots count, as well as an additional penalty stroke for taking another golf ball. Within the Rules of Golf, the provisional balls are covered in Rule 27.

Proxy
A term for several contests is proxy. It can be in effect during tournaments and it generally includes a distance measurement. Closest to the pin, longest drive, straightest drive or longest putt made are the common proxy contests. In case one or more proxy contests are performed at one or more holes, a clipboard or notepad, called “proxy marker”, can be fixed in the ground at those holes.

Proxy Marker
A proxy marker is a small clipboard or notepad which is located at the holes which are designated as proxy holes. In case a it is the closest to the pin contest at a particular hole the winner of one group puts the proxy marker at his ball location, writes his name on it and can play forward. Subsequent groups then try to beat this position. In case a golfer managed to beat it, he can put the proxy marker at the new best position and writes his name on it and so forth. Through this procedure the overall winner can be designated.

Public Course
In general, a golf course which is open to the common public, thus can be played by everyone, is called public course. In public courses it can be differenced between municipal courses and daily fee courses. The owners of municipal courses are any government, like for example a city. Characteristically for a daily free course is, that they are privately owned, but anyways open for all golfers. The daily free courses are most commonly slightly more luxurious and more expensive than municipal courses.

Pull
When used in golf, the terms pull or pulled shot refer to a particular ball flight. In there it is characteristically, for a right handed golfer, that the golf ball starts going on the left side of the target line and also ends up at the left side of the cup, thus it flies straight to the left side. Oppositely to this process, is the “push”, which flies straightly to the right side. The “hook” seems to be similar to the “pull”, but the difference is, that the hook curves to the left, whereas the pull has a straight trajectory to the left.

Pull Cart
A cart, thus a device to carry the golf bag, with two wheels which is designed to be pulled is due to that named pull cart.

Pulled Hook
Pulled hook is the name for a particular shot in golf. It starts flying to the left side of the target line but continues curving away.

Pulled Slice
A shot which begins on the left side of the target line but curves back to the right side of the line within the ball flight is called pulled slice.

Punch
A punch shot is a special golf shot. It's characterized by a lower trajectory in contrast to a traditional shot. A punch shot is performed by setting the golf ball up farther back in stance, taking an abbreviated backswing and a shorter follow through. Furthermore, the punch shot is played with a longer golf club. This shot is used in order to maintain the control over the golf ball in windy situations or playing the golf ball under tree branches. Highly skilled golfers differentiate between the punch and the knockdown shot, but for free time golfers there is no difference and the designations can be used as interchangeable terms.

Punchbowl Green
The expression punchbowl green refers to a putting green that is located in a depression. The name results because the green seems to be a bowl with a flat bottom as putting surface. The bowl is surrounded by mounds on three sides and the fourth side is open to the fairway. Those putting greens were commonly designed in the 19th Century in order to save moisture which helps creating a healthy putting surface.

Punched Greens
An aerated green is designated as punched green. As the aeration process as maintenance process is performed with a machine and leaves little holes on the ground, it is highly recognizable. The little holes are produced in order to circulate air into the grass roots and the soil and counteracts that soil compacts. And obviously all this is done in order to keep the turf grass healthy.

Punch out
Punch out is the designation for a rather small chip shot. Usually golfers perform when a longer shot would be necessary, but this short shot is the only possibility to release themselves out of a bad ball position, such as for example if the ball is caught in trees.

Pure
Pure is the designation used if a golfer flawlessly hit the center of gravity.

Push
A push is a particular golf shot. It designates the trajectory of the golf ball which – for right handed golfers - begins on the right side of the target line and continues flying in a straight line on the right side of the target line. As a result it also ends up on the right side of the cup. The opposite of this process is the pull, this ball flight goes straightly to the left side. A slice has the appearance of being similar, but in contrast to the “push” it curves to the right side instead of flying in a straight line.

Pushed Hook
The term pushed hook refers to a shot which starts flying to one side of flagstick, but it curves back towards the cup.

Push-Slice
Within a pushed slice, is a bad shot. In there, a golf ball begins to fly on the right side of the target, thus away from the target and curves even further away.

Push Fade
Push Fade is the designation for a shot which combines a push and a fade. For right-handed golfers this means, that it starts to curve to the right side of the target line and continues going there.

Putt
The word putt can either be used as noun, thus the putt, and designate a shot on the putting green. On the other hand it can be appropriated as verb, to putt, and thereby refer to the actual procedure of putting. As it is not intended to overcome higher distances, but make the golf ball rolling slightly in the hole, the putt is a rather soft shot. The shot is performed with a particular golf club, the putter.

Putter
The putter is a particular golf club. It is characterized by a low loft and in case it is utilized, it should make the golf ball roll on the ground with particular top spin. The putter is usually the golf club with which the golfer holes out.

Putt for Dough
Putt for Dough is the name for a points golf game, which can be either performed as a side bet or just for fun. Prior to the start of the round it has to be clarified what value it has to win the bet. The target is to 1-putt, thus hole out with only 1-putt. Usually, if a group of four golfers plays the bet, the points are determined in the following way: The golfer who is the most rearward on the putting green but nevertheless holes out with one putt earns four points. The next golf player receives three points if his ball holes out with one putt. The following golfer earns two points for a 1-putt, whereas the closest golfer receives only one point. In case one golfer needs three putt for holing out, he loses one point. The golfers of the group can decide on further specifications for Putt for Dough, of course.

Putting Cleek
The putting cleek is a variation and adaption of the historical golf club called cleek. Therefore the “putting cleek” is obviously also a historical golf club. It was wooden-shafted and produced as well as used in the pre-20th Century. As the name suggests and as it was used for putting, it is the best comparable to the modern putter.

Putting-Green
The putting green is the area of the hole, where the cup with the flagstick are situated. The putting green or rather the hole which is on the putting green is the target of the golf game. There are no specifications of the design of a putting green, thus the green can vary in shape, size or other design elements. Only the turfgrass of a putting green has to be the most closely mown turf of all turfs on the golf course, so that it especially suits for putting. The Rule 16 of the Rules of Golf is specialized in the putting green. Further designations for the putting green are green or dance floor.

Putt Out
Putt out is a synonym for holing out. This means that putt out is the completion of a hole if the golf ball fell in the cup.

Q

Quadruple Bogey
A score of four over par, either on a single hole or on the golf course, is designated as quadruple bogey. In case a golfer scored for example nine strokes on a par-5 hole, he made a quadruple bogey.

Quail High
Quail high is the designation for a shot with a particularly low trajectory.

Qualifying School
The term Qualifying School, abbreviated with Q-School, refers to a particular qualifying tournament. Winning there enables golfers to compete in professional golf tours. The most famous Q-School event is organized by the PGA Tour. The qualifying process – especially the one of the PGA Tour consists of more than one events. There is always one event which defines the best players who move forward to the next event and again get classified there. The last or rather final round of the classification process is designated as Qualifying School, thus the lowest finishers plus ties of the Q-School are really those golfers who are afterwards allowed to take part in the professional golf tour.

Quarter Shot
A quarter shot is a particular golf shot which is characterized by an enormously shortened swing, so that it only the quarter of the original shot results, hence the name. It is performed for making very short shots which need to be extremely under control.

Quota tournament
The quota tournament is a special variation of the golf game. The basic target is to reach 36 points in total. Each player begins the game with an amount of points which fit with his handicap, thus the number of points is the handicap. In case a golfer has a handicap of 15 he starts with 15 points. The starting point is called quota. The goal is to get 36 points by adding points. Generally it is added after this specification: in case a golfer reached a bogey, he earns one point, if he pars, it means two points, by stroking a birdie, the golfer receives four points and with an eagle he receives 8 points. In case one golfer reaches the 36 points, he is the winner of the tournament. If more golfers achieved the goal, the one who exceeds them with the greatest amount wins the tournament, or, in case no one managed to reach the 36 points, the winner is the one who came closest to it.

Quit
The expressions quit or quitting on the ball refer to the procedure of slowing down the swing before hitting the golf ball. This results in a decelerated club at the impact.

R

R&A
R&A is the abbreviation for Royal and Ancient. In golf, this term has two different meanings. On the one hand side it refers to one of the oldest, most popular and luxurious golf clubs worldwide. It is situated in St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland and founded in 1754. The R&A is globally classified as Home of Golf. Until 2004 this golf club was also a governing authority in golf, but meanwhile this authority consists of a new group of companies called The R&A. As it is also often only called R&A, the term simply received its second meaning as the governmental company in golf. This authority covers every country instead of the United States and Mexico. The R&A works with golf organizations in more than 110 countries.

Rabbit
When used in golf, the term rabbit refers to a golf side bet with the object of achieving a low score on a hole and receiving the honor after the 9th and 18th hole. The basic structure is, that when the round begins, the golfer with the lowest score occupies the Rabbit. Ties don't count for the lowest score. In case another golfer scores lower than the Rabbit holder at the subsequent hole, the Rabbit is set free. Afterwards, at the next hole the lowest scorer captures the Rabbit and tries to defend this position, but in case he can't and isn't the lowest scorer at the next hole, the procedure repeats itself. The winner(s) of the bet are the golfers who capture the Rabbit at the 9th and 18th hole. If the Rabbit is set free at this time, no one wins the bet.

Radius
The term radius refers to the swing. In there it is the space between the hands on the grip and the forward shoulder.

Rainmaker
Rainmaker is a term describing a stroke with an extremely high ball flight. The rainmaker can either be produced intentionally or accidentally. The name results therein, that this high trajectory seems to be even able to hit the clouds and cause a rainfall.

Raised Swing Center
The term raised swing center designates the uplifting of the central section in the body close to which the rotation takes place. It synonymously called looking up, thus following the ball with the eyes too early. As a consequence the swing will be too high.

Range
A range is a particular area besides of the golf course, in which golf players can work on their golf skills. In there, they can concentrate exactly on the golf swing, the stance or the correction of mistakes. During a round this would take too much time and disturb other golfers in their game flow. The range is usually designed as an open field with a teeing ground, sometimes it also consists of bunkers, chipping, pitching and even putting green areas for practicing. It is common among golf players to shot some golf balls before the round in order to warm up. The most common expression for range is driving range, a further expression is practicing range.

Range Ball
A range ball is a particular golf ball which is designed for playing on the range. Therefore it is characteristically manufactured with a harder cover, so that it won't be easily damaged. The range balls are commonly identifiable because of an red or black stripe going around them. Sometimes used balls are degraded as range balls and therefore only used at the driving range. The term range ball is furthermore sometimes used as slang term for a shot that went bad. The golf ball which was used for this shot is then designated as range ball.

Rangefinder
The rangefinder, sometimes spelled in two words range finder, is a particular measure device in golf. It is used in order to find out a golfers distance to an object. Thus it is used to determine the distance from the golfers position to the hole.

Ranger
The ranger is a person at the golf course. It is the responsible person for questions or concerns of golfers and they have kind of a golf police character, so only their presence makes golfers playing more carefully. It is for example the task of a ranger to supervise the speed of the game. Therefore the usually volunteering rangers are visible to all golfers and drive with marked golf carts. Further more commonly used designations for a ranger are course ranger or marshall.

Rap
The term rap designates a particular putt in golf. It is a putt which is defined by a short, but at the same time hard, stroke.

Rating
Rating is the short form of course rating and refers to the measurement of the complexity of an golf course. This is measured in strokes and there is a clear specification of the statements. If a common par 72 golf course is easy to play, the rating is for example 68.9, in case it is hard to play, the rating could be 74.5. This rating is executed by the USGA and usually the course rating is also noted in the scorecard. Furthermore, as it is even relevant for the calculation of the USGA Handicap Index, the rating is a particular part of the USGA Handicapping System.

Rating Marker
There is a particular sign next to the tee, which is called rating marker. It displays a point, from which the exact distance of the hole is measured.

Reading the Green
Reading the Green is a procedure of determining the target line including breaks and the path of a putt a golf ball has to fly and roll in order to hole out.

Ready Golf
Ready Golf is a procedure of speeding up the golf game. In there, the first golfer of a group who is ready is allowed to play first, regardless if he was away, so would be allowed to play first, or not. After the etiquette of golfing, this is not allowed and is classified as poor etiquette. But in fact, this process can speed up the game enormously and is no violation after the Rules of Golf. Ready Golf should only be played, if it is required by the tournament organizer or in a friendly match, if all members agree on playing it.

Reciprocals
A reciprocal is a mutual arrangement between two private golf clubs. The general focus is to provide members of both clubs the opportunity of playing at the other golf course without being member there. This is often published as advertisement in order to acquire new members because of the advantage of playing on two golf courses but only being member in one.

Recovery Shot
A Recovery Shot, abbreviated with Recover, is the designation for a specific shot in golf. In fact, it is a shot out of a poor position, like a hazard into a favorable playing location.

Redan
Redan, or rather redan hole refers to a particular golf hole. A redan hole is most commonly a par-3 hole including a complex, wide putting green. This green slopes diagonally away from the tee box usually from the right to the left side. It angles from the front to the back corner and provides large bunkers which are most commonly situated at the left side. The original redan hole is located at the West Links at North Berwick Golf Links in Scotland and called redan. Therefore all holes which are designed after this model are called redan hole.

Red Tees
There is a multiple set of tee boxes on each hole. The red tees are the forward tees of a golf course. In the past there have been three tee boxes which were colored differently. The rearmost ones were blue, the middle tees were white and the forward tee boxes red colored. As there are meanwhile more tees at the each hole, this differentiation doesn't fit any more, but the names remained. In case a golfer plays the whole round from the forward tees, this is automatically the shortest playable length of the golf course. The red tees are often called ladies tees.

Red, White and Blue Tournament
Red, White and Blue Tournament is the designation for a particular tournament format. In there, Red, White and Blue refers to the Front, Middle and Back tees. At the first hole, all golf players tee off from the white, thus the middle tees. Afterwards, the tee box depends on the score. In case a golfer scored a birdie at the first hole, he has to tee off from the blue tees, meaning the rearmost tees on the second hole. Golfers who scored par tee again off from the middle tees and the ones who scored a bogey or even worse tee off from the red, thus the front tees. This procedure is repeated at each hole. This tournament format can be either played with or without using the handicap strokes.

Referee
A referee is an official person who pays attention on the Rules of Golf within a match or competition.

Regular Shaft
Regular shaft is a term for the shaft of a golf club with a medium amount of torque.

Regulation
The Regulation designates every official specification concerning golf and concerning the Rules of Golf.

Release
Release refers to a powerful shot. In there, the golfer hit the ball strong enoughh that it rolls on the green. The release includes a particular motion of the hands during the swing, with which the golfer returns the clubhead directly to the ball during the impact.

Relief
The relief is a procedure in conformity with the Rules of Golf and it means, that the golfer is allowed to pick up the golf ball and move it away from a bad condition but without any penalty.

Reload
In case a shot is assuredly out of play, it is called reload.

Resort Course
A particular golf course, which is part of a larger resort complex is called resort course. Usually the resort contains a hotel or lodging and a spa. Those golf courses are nevertheless often also open for the public, but resort guests are usually preferentially treated for the tee-time reservation.

Reverse Bounce Back
In case a golfer scored a bogey or even worse at one hole and a birdie or something better at the subsequent hole, this is called reverse bounce back. The opposite sequence is called bounce back.

Reverse Overlap
The reverse overlap is a particular golf grip. The golfer positions the little finger of one hand over the index finger of the other hand. As it is the direct opposite of the reverse overlap, it received its name reverse overlap.

Reverse Scramble
The term reverse scramble describes a specific variation of the scramble in golf. At first, all members tee off. Afterwards the worst of those drives is selected and every player has to hit his second shot out of this location. And again, the worst of those shots is chosen in order to play all third strokes from that position. This procedure is repeated until the golf ball is holed out. As this format requires a lot of time, it is not recommended to play it as a tournament or to play it if the golf course is crowded. But in fact it is a good practice game if no golfer behind a golfer or a group has to wait on them.

Reverse: Weight Shift
A reverse weight shift is the designation for a mistake during the swing. In there, instead of moving the weight to the back leg, the golfer moves his weight forward on the backswing. This usually results in a poor shot.

Rhythm
When used in golf, rhythm refers to the coordination of the motions during the swing or the putt. A good rhythm can have a positive influence on the shot.

Rimmed
The term rimmed describes a particular shot. In there, the golf ball circles around the lip of the hole but doesn't drop in, meaning it is very close to holing out, but in the end it doesn't do so.

Road Hole
The term road hole designates the 17th hole at the Old Course at St. Andrews. It is a par-4 hole and one of the most renowned and at the same time most complicated holes in the world.

Rolex Rankings
The official world rankings of women's professional golf are called Rolex Rankings. As the watch manufacturer Rolex is the title sponsor, it is named this way. The rankings are calculated weekly and can be seen at their official website.

Rotation
As professional tournaments sometimes rotate the golf courses where they take place, this procedure is called rotation, shortened with rota. The particular designation “Open rota” refers to the rotation of golf courses at the British Open.

Rough
A particular area on the golf course is called rough. It lies outside the fairways and consists of a higher, thicker turf. Sometimes the turf is even the natural growing and unkept grass. But usually the so-called first cut of rough is the adjacent area to the fairway which is mowed higher than the fairway but lower than the “second cut of rough”. But this variety of rough is not obligatory, there are also many golf courses having only one version of rough.

Round
The round is in golf the designation for the whole 18 holes of a golf course and also for the score of those 18 holes. In case a golf course only provides nine holes or the golfer plays only nine holes, the term round can also refer to those nine holes.

Round Robin
Round Robin is the designation for a specific golf format. The general structure is based on two teams with two golfers in each. But, every six holes, the partners rotate during the game. At the first six holes one constellation plays with each other, afterwards, for the second six holes the teammates change and after six further holes they change again, so that in the end every golfer had three times another teammate. The goal for each golfer is to be in the winning team for leastwise two times. It is recommended to either play Round Robin with golfers with similar skill levels or with full handicaps. Round Robin is furthermore known as Sixes or C.O.D.

Routing
Routing is an expression referring to the line a golf course follows from the first teeing ground to the finalization of the 18th hole. In contrast to the layout, the routing doesn't include design elements of the individual holes.

Rowan Match play
A Rowan Match play is a variation of the match play. It can be performed with three or more golfers. At first, all golfers play against each other. The player who had the best score on the first hole wins the hole with a score of 1 up towards all the others. As a result, the others build a team against this leading golfer with the intention to play all-square. This procedure repeats the whole round.

Royal and Ancient
Royal and Ancient is known as the Home of Golf. It is one of the oldest, most famous and luxurious golf clubs in the world, located in St.Andrews, Scotland. The golf club was established 1754 and it was furthermore also the primary governing body of golf until 2004.

Rub of the Green
The term rub of the green refers to a rule within the Rules of Golf. It's basically a rule concerning the golf ball. In case the ball is unintentionally deflected or stopped by a caddie, forecaddie or any other outside agency, the procedure is designated as “rub of the green” and can be played where it comes to rest and the golfer doesn't receive any penalty.

Rule
When used in golf, the term Rule can either refer to the official R&A Rules of Golf or the local rule.

Rule 23
The Rule 23 is a very important rule within the Rules of Golf, which refers to loose impediments. Those are loose, natural elements on a golf course which could influence the golf game or rather the target line of a golf ball. For that reason the objects can usually be moved without penalty as long as the golf ball and the impediment are not both in a hazard.

Rule 26
Rule 26 of the Rules of Golf refers to water hazards, lateral water hazards and the general treatment of them at a golf course. There are for example explanations about the address of a golf ball in a water hazard, where a golfer is not allowed to ground his golf ball or that lateral water hazards need to be labelled noticeable by red stakes or lines.

Rules of Golf
Within the Rules of Golf all regulations, specifications and procedures of the golf game are covered. The rules are defined by the R & A and the USGA. Specific rules involve for example water hazards, unplayable balls or the behavior on the putting green.

Run
In golf, the term run refers to the distance which a golf ball rolls after its landing. Whereas the distance the golf ball travels in the air is called carry.

Running iron
A particular golf club is called running iron. With its help, the golfer is able to create short shots which mainly roll.

Run-up
The term run-up describes a particular hitting of the golf ball. In there, the golf ball is hit close to the ground approaching and onto the putting green.

Rutter
Rutter is the designation for a niblick. This particular niblick is small headed and designed in order to be able to hit the golf ball from a cart track.

S

Sandbagger
The term sandbagger designates a golf player who carries a higher handicap, than his skills permit. This cheating practice is performed in order to win bets on the course or win golf tournaments with net rating. The sandbagger” can synonymously also be called bandit or hustler.

Sandie
The expression sandie, sometimes written sandy, has two slightly different meanings. On the one hand side, the term can refer to a golfer making par on a hole at which he were in a bunker before. In this meaning a sandie is often played as a betting game in which any golfer who makes par after his golf ball was situated in a bunker wins a point or alternatively an agreed-upon set of money. Whereas on the other hand side the sandie can also designate the procedure of stroking out of a bunker and hole out in two shots. If a golfer achieved par or an even better score after hitting two or three bunker shots at the same hole, this is either called Double Sandy or Triple Sandy.

Sand Save
Sand Save is a term describing that a golfer scored par by performing an up and down from a green-side bunker.

Sand Trap
Sand trap is another designation for a bunker. But in fact bunker is the official term and sand trap is only a slang term in golf, which is never used by governing bodies.

Sand Wedge
The sand wedge is a specific golf club. One of its characteristics is a high loft. As it was especially invented for playing out of a bunker, the sand wedge received its name. Nevertheless all categories of shots within 100 yards can be performed with a sand wedge.

Sclaff
The term sclaff describes a procedure in golf, in which a golf club strikes the ground completely behind the golf ball.

Scoop
Scoop refers to a golf swing in which the golf club flies in a scooping manner. The result of this procedure is a poor shot.

Score
The Score designates the number of strokes which a golfer needs in order to hole out or the total number of strokes on a round. After each hole, the score is noted in the scorecard. To score can furthermore also have the meaning of keeping the number of used strokes on a minimum.

Scorecard
The scorecard is a particular card in golf, on which a golf player notes down his personal score of each hole during the play as well as the total score of the round. The speciality is, that in some matches golfers have to record the score of opponent golfers.

Scoring
The expression scoring has different meanings in golf. At first it refers to the grooves, dimples or scratches, thus all markings on the clubface. Furthermore it can designate a procedure of keeping the performed scores on a minimum. And finally the term “scoring” also refers to the process of registering scores or leading the scoreboard.

Scoring Clubs
The driver, the putter as well as the sand wedge are commonly designated as scoring clubs.

Scotch Foursomes
Scotch Foursomes is a golf format, in which teams of two golfers per team play against each other. The general concept is, that every golf player tees off and the best ball per team is chosen and afterwards this ball is holed out in alternate shot fashion. It is characteristic, that this golf format can be played as match play as well as in a stroke play fashion. Furthermore the format is also known as Canadian Foursomes, Modified Pinehurst or greensomes.

Scramble
The Scramble is a special variation of playing golf. It is commonly performed at tournaments or charity events. In there, two teams with either two or four golfers per team play against each other. In case there are only two players per team, the handicaps are usually in play, but at a 4-person Scramble they are only applied in an Ambrose competition. The general structure of the Scramble is, that each golfer tees off. Afterwards the best of the drives is chosen and marked with a ball marker and every golf player makes his second shot out of this position. After the second shot, again, all golfers select the best ball and all participants stroke out of this position. This process is repeated until the golf ball is holed out. Sometimes there is also the specification, that low handicappers have to tee off from the back tees and high handicappers from the front tees. There are additional variations of the Scramble, for example the so-called Ambrose or the Bramble.

Scratch
In case a golfer is designated as Scratch or Scratch Golfer, this means he has a handicap of 0 or even a lower one. As a result, this kind of golfer is able to finish a round with a score of par or under par. Scratch golfers also play an important role in the course and slope rating systems of the USGA.

Senior
A Senior- competition is a competition for older golfers ore individuals. The standard lower age in men´s professional golf is 50, while other competitions like the U.S. Senior Amateur with the lower age limit 55 and the „Legends Tour“ in women´s golf with the lower age limit 45.

Shamble
Shamble is a golf format that is related to Scramble. After every golfer had hit the ball from the tee, the best tee-shot is going to be selected and from this position all golfers have to hole in.

Shank
If the golf ball is struck with a part of the club, that is not the club-face, it is called Shank. A shanked shot will travel a short distance or might be hard sliced or hooked.

Shanks
Shanks is a Situation in which the golfer cannot stop shanking the golf ball.

Shoot your age
Shoot your age is a golf format, in which the golfers have to play exactly the same score or less, like his age, in a round of 18 holes.

Short Game
Short games are shots that are played on or near the green. For example: Pitching, Chipping and Putting.

Short Side
If a golfer hits a shot that misses the green to the same side as the side where the hole is located, it is named Short Side.

Sit
If a golfer says Sit, he wants the ball to drop softly and not to roll.

Skull
If the ball got hit by the leading edge of the iron it is called Skull. A Skulled Shot mostly results in a flat shot, that goes further than expected with no or just little spin. A Skull is equal to a Blade or a Thin.

Slope Rating
The Slope Rating helps the bogey golfer to asses the difficulty of a golf course. The number of Slope Rating can be between 55 to 155, an average course has the Level 113.

Snowman
If a golfer scores an eight on a hole its a Snowman, because the eight (8) looks like the body of a snowman.

Society
A Society is a group of golfers, who usually play together without being affiliated to a special golf course.

Sole
The piece of golf club that rests on the ground in playing position is called Sole.

Speed
The pace of a putt is called Speed. The Speed of a putt will either leave the putt about 18 inches beyond the cup or hole it. The break or amount of curve is often determined by the Speed.

Spray
When a ball is hit with a grossly inconsistent direction and it is compared to the intended target it is called a Spray.

Stimpmeter
A Stimpmeter is used to measure the speed of the Putting Green.

Stony
A Stony is a shot, that lands close to the flagstick.

Stroke Play
The Stroke Play is a golf format, where the player with the fewest strokes wins. Most of the time, Stroke plays are played in professional tournaments. Stroke Play is also known as Medal play.

Stymie
If a player wants to block another golfer´s putting path to the hole with his own golf ball it is named a Stymie.

Sunday Bag
A small and lightweight golf bag is called Sunday Bag.

Sunday Stick
A golf club, that is disguised as a walking stick for secret golf on a sunday is called a Sunday Stick in societies that strict compliance the sabbath.

Sweet Spot
The Sweet Spot is this point on the club-face, in which the optimal ball-striking results can be achieved. The power transfer ratio will be higher, if the ball is close to the Sweet-spot.

T

Takeaway
The Takeaway is the basic move from the club away from the golf ball to the backswing.

T and F
In the golf format T and F tournament the holes on the golf course get a special meaning. The Name T and F refers to the first letters of those holes ( e.g., Three, Four,...).This tournament can be played with any scoring format, there are usually two possibilities how to play T and F. The first is with Teams with not less than theee players or another competition. Only the scores of holes beginning with T or F are counted. Another variant is about teams with 2 golfers, the first golfers scores are only counted from the holes beginning with T and F, the second golfers scores are only used on the remaining nine holes. To create the team score the scores of both players have to be added together. Who has to play the T and F is normally decided by the tournament organizers or the partners.

Tap-In
If a ball has come to rest very close to the hole, that need only a short put to hole, it is called a Tap-In.

Target Line
The Target Line is the imagined line from the golf ball to the target, over this line the ball should be holed. The position of the golfers´ feet, knees, hips and shoulders should be parallel to the target line in the basic golf setup position.

TaylorMade Golf
TaylorMade Golf is just the same as TaylorMade-adidas Golf (TMAG). TMAG is a minor group of the adidas Group. The beginning of TMAG was in 1978, when Gary Adams began presenting his metal-headed drivers to PGA Tour pros.

Tee
The Tee is part of the Equipment, it´s the small piece that boosts the golf ball off the ground for the first stroke from the Teeing Ground. The golf Tee is normally a wood or plastic pin, with a height of two or three inches, with a balanced position on top.

Tee Ball
The ball that is played from the Teeing Ground is called Tee Ball.

Tee Box
The Tee Box is the starting point on each hole of a golf course. The Tee Box is two club-lengths deep and rectangular. The sides and the front are defined by outside limits of two Tee Markers.

Teeing Ground
The starting point on each hole of a golf course is called Teeing Ground. The Teeing Ground is two club-lengths deep rectangular area, the sides and the front are defined by outside limits of two Tee Markers.

Tee Shot
The first stroke, which is played from the Teeing Ground of the hole is called Tee Shot.

Tee Time
Tee Time is the time, when your reservation at a golf course begins. At your Tee Time the first Tee Shot should be hit. Not all golf courses have a determined Tee Time.

Texas Scramble
Texas Scramble is a golf format like Scramble with minor Modification. With Scramble are 4-person teams and each member of the team is playing his own golf ball. After all four players hit their drives, they select the best of them. The other three team members move their golf balls to the position of the best drive and play their next shot from this spot. This movement continues until the golf ball is holed. In Texas Scramble every members´ ball have to be played at least four drives during the round. Texas Scramble allows even the weakest driver to get in action.

Texas Wedge
A slang term for the Putter is known as Texas Wedge. Popularized by Ben Hogan the, Texas Wedge was used to play from the green.

Thin Shot
A Thin Shot is a shot, in which the clubhead strikes the golf ball near or slightly lower its midpoint. This shot can sometimes travel a long distance. A Thin can also be called as Blade but sometimes they have a different meaning.

Thirty-Two
A Thirty-Two is a challenge between two golfers, in which one player want to avoid a three-putt. If one player is facing a long difficult putt, the other one can appeal to the Thirty-Two side bet. If the enemy at least two putts, the other golfer have to give him three units of the bet. If he´s making three-putts or worse, he owes you two units.

Three Ball
Three Ball is actually two matchplays for each player in just one round. The group of three players challenge against each other in matchplay by playing individual matches 1-vs-2.

Three Blind Mice
Another golf tournament format is Three Blind Mice, it hast two different meanings.

Three Club Monte
Three Club Monte is a golf format, in which a golfer can only use three golf clubs during the round. It is regulated, that the golfers can use their putters, without counting them. During the round the three golf clubs, which where chosen can not be changed.

Three Little Pigs
The competition format Three Little Pigs allows the golfer to remove their three worst scores. After finishing the round, the golfers can eliminate them and the scores from the other 15 holes are added together to create the Three Little Pigs-Score.

Three-Putt
If a golfer needs three putts on the green to hole the golf ball it is named Three-Putt. All players hope to avoid a Three-Putt, because it shows that the golfer is not incapable to finish a hole with two putts on the green.

Three-Putt Poker
Three-Putt Poker combines golf sport with poker. At the beginning the members of a group make a bet and receive a poker card. Every golfer who needs at least three putts on a hole have to add the sum of the bet to the pot. Each player who make a 1-putt is receiving another playing card. After finishing the front nine, the golfer with the best card wins the pot and the game goes on.

Threesome
The Term Threesome has two different meanings. At first it can be just a group of three golfers, who are playing golf together. Secondly Threesomes can be a competition format, in which one player plays against two others and each side has one ball. This golf format can be played as match play or as stroke play.

Tiger Tees
A slang term for the Tee Boxes used in professional Tournaments is Tiger Tees.

Tight Lie
A Tight Lie is any position where the golf ball is sitting on bare dirt or any spot, where´s a very little grass beneath the ball. It is also known as Thin lie.

Tips
The Tips are the championship tees on a golf course.

Toe
The Toe is the far end of the club head.

Tombstone
The competition format Tombstone is better known as Flags or Flag Competition. In this golf format the players start with their assigned strokes until they run out. The winner is the golfer who makes it the furthest around the golf course. Each golfer takes a flag, a small clipboard or other items with him to stake them in the ground at the position of their final stroke.

Topdressing
A layer of material put down on a green following aeration or overseeding to care for the putting green is called Topdressing. The Topdressing can be a mixture of sand, soil and fertilizer or a mixture of sand, seed and fertilizer.

Topped Shot
A Topped Shot is a failed shot, where the club-head strikes on top of the ball. A topped shot is causing the ball to roll or bounce instead of fly.

Triple Bogey
If a golfer needs three strokes over par to hole the ball it is called Triple Bogey.

Trough Line
The Trough Line is the imaginary line a ball would roll if it goes past the hole.

Turkey
Three ensuing Birdies in one round are called Turkey.

U

Unplayable
A golfer can assert his ball during the play as unplayable and drop him either from the hole in line with the hole and its current position or within two club-length, or where the last shot was played. There´s a fine of one stroke. If a ball is declared unplayable in a Hazard, it has to be dropped within this hazard.

Up and Down
The Up and Down is the situation, where a golfer makes it to hole the golf ball in two strokes from outside the green. Firstly a Pitch, a Bunker Shot or a Chip gets the ball Up onto the green and secondly a Putt gets the golf ball Down/In into the hole.

USGA
The USGA is the governing body of golf for the U.S. and Mexico. The Rules of Golf are produced by them together with THE R&A.

USPGA
The USPGA is the principal organization for golf pro´s in the USA.

V

Vardon Grip
The Vardon Grip is a grip style, in which the right pinkie finger (for right-handd players) lies on top of the left index finger. It is named for Harry Vardon, a pro golfer of the 20th century. This grip is also known as Overlapping Grip.

W

Waggle
A Waggle is known as a pre-shot routine, where a golfer prepares his body, his golf club and practice to swing at the golf ball.

We are Golf
We are Golf is a coalition, which is formed by the Club Managers Association of Amerika, the National Golf Course Owner Association, the Golf Course Superintendents Association of Amerika and the PGA of America. The economic and social impacts of golf are paramount in this organization.

Wedge
A Wedge is a golf club with high loft.

Whiff
When a golfer tries to strike the ball but fails to hit it, it is called a Whiff. A Whiff is counted as a stroke.

Winter Green
The Winter Green is an area of fairway, that is used as putting green during hard winter weather.

Winter Rules
Winter Rules is a local rule, that allows the golfer to lift, clean and move on the ball on the fairway during unfavourable course conditions.

Wolf
Wolf can be played as a points or betting game for a group of four players. At every hole, the Wolf changes. The Wolf can decide if he wants to play himself against the other three golfers or if the hole is played by two teams, each with two members. The Wolf has to decide which player he wants to be in a team with, before the next player´s drive. The team with the lowest better ball score wins the hole. If the Golfers play 2-vs.-2 the winners have to bet, if they play 1-vs.-3, the Wolf wins or loses double. If the Wolf decides, that he wants to play alone, before anyone has teed of, he wins or loses triple.

Wolfman
A golf betting game, which has resemblance with Wolf, Hog and Defender is Wolfman. It´s a game format especially for groups of three golfers. The it Player is chosen based on his tee shots. On each hole, one golfer is the Wolfman and the others are called Hunters. By teeing off on par 4s and par 5s the player with the second-longest drive turns into the Wolfman. On par 3s the player with the second closest drive to the hole becomes the Wolfman. The hole is is played out at stroke play, afterwards the net score of the Wolfman is doubled and the net scores of the Hunters are added together. If the final score of the Wolfman is lower than the combined score of the Hunters´, the Wolfman wins the hole. If the Wolfman´s score is higher, the Hunters win and bet. The bet amount is optional and the winner earns this amount from the loser. Wolfman can also be played for points.

Worm burner
If the golf ball gets barely off the ground or even doesn’t get off the ground, the bad shot is called Wormburner. Even if the golf ball rolls a proper distance, Wormburners are bad shots.

Wraparound Schedule
If a pro golf tour begins in one year and finishes in the following year it is called Wraparound Schedule or Wraparound Season.

X

X
If a player fails to complete a hole, a X ist written on the scorecard, instead of a number.

X-Out
Golf Balls on which the name of the brand has been crossed out are called X-Outs or x-out golf balls. They are sold with a reduced price. The X-Outs are generally like the original ball of the brand but they have one defect through the production process, like a discoloration or a bit too much weight.

Y

Yardage Book
A booklet with illustrations of each hole on a golf course is called Yardage Book. There are overhead views and length information about the distances between hazards and landmarks on each hole. The Yardage Book helps the golfer to plan his way around the golf course.

Yellow Ball
Another golf tournament format is known as Yellow Ball. There are many various names for this game, for example Money Ball, Pink Ball, Pink Lady, Devil Ball and Lone Ranger. In this golf format groups of four are playing Scramble and one of the four balls is yellow. The team players pass this yellow ball after each hole. To create a team score, the scores of each hole of two team members are added together. One score has to be from the player who played the yellow ball and the other one ist the lowest score of the others.

Yellowsomes
Yellowsomes is a golf format, which can be used in golf tournaments, competitions for two teams with two players in each or in betting games in a group with 2-vs-2. Both members of a team tee off, then the opponents decide which drive the other team has to play and the other way round. From that moment you play alternate shot. The format ist also known as Gruesomes.

Yips
Yips is a tendency to flutter while putting that bothers some golfers. Even pro golfers suffer damages from yips.

Z

Zinger
If a ball gets hit high and hard it is called Zinger.

 

 

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Thaigerline Golf Co., Ltd.                      Contact + Map
383/100 Moo 9, Soi Chaiyapoon, 3rd Road, Soi 25, Pattaya, Chonburi 20260
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Thai-Ger Line - Daily Golf Calendar

Daily Golf Tours start from our Golf Shop in Pattaya from October 17th through March 31st on weekdays only.
Join us on the Thai-Ger Line golf bus- we'll take you to a different Golf Course each day of the week.
Price start from 1.700 THB incl. transfer from office to golf course and return, caddy and green fee.
*the Booking has to be made ONE DAY or better TWO DAYS in advance before 16:00
*Program and Price due to change without prior notice

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Tournament 1

Tournament 2

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383/100 Moo 9, Soi Chaiyapoon,
20260 Pattaya - THAILAND

+66 (0) 38 720519

+66 (0) 92 313 3378

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